Cyanobacterial Toxins

  • Hans Utkilen
Part of the Biotechnology Handbooks book series (BTHA, volume 6)


The first scientific account of a cyanobacterial bloom causing the death of animals was published by Francis (1878), and subsequent incidents involving the intoxication of animals up until 1961 were excellently reviewed by Schwimmer and Schwimmer (1968). Ingram and Prestcott (1954) reviewed reports on the intoxication of animals and birds by cyanobacteria in Minnesota for the period 1882–1933; five species, Anabaena flos aquae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Coelosphaerium keutzigianum, Gloeotrichia echinulata, and Microcystis aeruginosa, were involved in the reported cases. A similar report on Minnesota for the period 1948–1950 was published by Olson (1964). Today reports implicating cyanobacteria in the sickness and death of livestock, pets, birds, and wildlife come from all over the world (Gorham and Carmichael, 1988). Some reports indicate that human intoxication has occurred after consumption of water contaminated by cyanobacterial blooms (Schwimmer and Schwimmer, 1968; Dillenberg and Dehnel, 1960; Falconer et al., 1983a).


Okadaic Acid Cyanobacterial Bloom Microcystis Aeruginosa Marine Cyanobacterium Anabaena Variabilis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Utkilen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental MedicineNational Institute of Public HealthOslo 4Norway

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