A Note on Flapping Flight with Surging

  • E. C. James

Abstract

A two-dimensional, unsteady, inviscid, incompressible wing theory is developed for a wing at constant angle of incidence executing “small” heaving and “large” surging displacements. The relative order of magnitude of the displacements are referenced to a normalized semichord of unity. The heave-surge motion is assumed to give rise to a constant mean forward self-propulsion speed which is a free parameter in the analysis. The results develop the long-time periodic values and the time-averaged values of lift, moment, thrust, power-input necessary to sustain the motion, the useful rate of working and the rate of energy wastage in the fluid.

Keywords

Vortex Sheet Vortex Wake Forward Speed Inertial Coordinate System Suction Force 
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References

  1. James, E. C. 1973 A linearized theory for the unsteady motions of a wing in curved flight. Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Report 4098.Google Scholar
  2. Lighthill, M. J. 1970 Acquatic animal propulsion of high hydro-mechanical efficiency. J. Fluid Mech. 14, 265–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Wu, T. Y. -T. 1972 Hydromechanics of swimming propulsion. Part 1. Swimming of a two-dimensional flexible plate at variable forward speeds in an inviscid fluid. J. Fluid Mech. 46, 337–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. C. James
    • 1
  1. 1.Naval Ship Research and Development CenterBethesdaUSA

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