Calmodulin in the Regulation of Calcium Fluxes in Cardiac Sarcolemma

  • Ernesto Carafoli
Part of the Advances in Myocardiology book series (ADMY)


Three systems mediate the fluxes of calcium across heart sarcolemma: the slow calcium channel (influx), the ATP-dependent calcium pump (efflux), and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (efflux, but possibly also influx). Calmodulin regulates the pumping ATPase by direct interaction and also by activating a protein kinase. The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is modulated by calmodulin via a phosphorylation—dephosphorylation cycle. Both the kinase and the phosphatase are membrane-bound and calmodulin-sensitive. The kinase has higher Ca2+ affinity than the phosphatase.


Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Acidic Phospholipid cAMP Dependent Phosphorylation Sarcolemmal Vesicle Cardiac Sarcolemma 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernesto Carafoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of BiochemistrySwiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH)ZurichSwitzerland

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