Coatings on Refractory Metals

  • D. H. Leeds


The term “refractory metals” is used generally to include those metals which melt above the melting point of chromium – 3405°F or 1875°C, the most refractory being tungsten (see Ref.1 and Table 1). The rare and noble refractory metals are normally not used in structural applications because of limited availability leaving, unfortunately, the least oxidation resistant metals of the family for high temperature structural applications (see Fig. 1). As we become increasingly aware of the aerothermodynamic impositions on a vehicle attempting to leave or reenter the air atmosphere, we can vividly see why the designer is seeking new structural materials.


Refractory Metal Oxidation Protection Pack Cementation Battelle Memorial Institute Reentry Vehicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. A. Krier, “Coatings for the Protection of Refractory Metals from Oxidation,” DMIC Report 162 Defense Metals Information Center, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, (24 November 1961 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. A. Perkins, et al., “Problems in the Oxidation Protection of Refractory Metals in Aerospace Applications,” Lockheed MSC, Sunnyvale. Paper presented at Sixth Refractory Composite Working Group Meeting NASA/ASD, Dayton, Ohio (June 1962).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. G. Bergeron, et al., “Protective Coatings for Refractory Metals,” Department of Ceramic Engineering, University of Illinois, WADC TR 59–526 (January 1960).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. V. Doane, “Oxidation Resistant Coatings of Molybdenum,” WADC TR 54–492 Part III, Climax Molybdenum Co. of Michigan (April 1957).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. T. Wlodek, “Coatings for Columbium,” Metals Research Laboratories, Union Carbide Metals Company, Niagara Falls, Paper presented Third High Temperature Composites Working Group Meeting NASA/WADD, San Diego, Calif. (27–28 January 1960).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. D. Smith, “Microstructures of Selected Sprayed Coatings on Unalloyed Columbium,” Mechanical Research Laboratory, Engineering Department, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Delaware. Paper presented Sixth Refractory Composites Working Group Meeting, Dayton, Ohio, NASA/ASD (June 1962).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. H. Leeds, “Reentry Protective Systems, A Bibliography of Refractory Metals Protective Systems Research,” Aerospace Corporation, Materials Sciences Laboratory, DCAS-TDR-62–146 Report No. TDR-169 (3240–31) TR-1 (6 August 1962 ).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. H. Leeds, “A Portfolio of Experience in Refractory Metal Protection” TDR-169(3240–31)TR-2 (March 1963) (AF Report SSD-TDR-63-51).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. C. Wurst, et al., “Evaluation of Materials Systems for Use in Extreme Thermal Environments Utilizing an Arc-Plasma Jet,” University of Dayton Research Institute, WADD TR60–926 (June 1961). See also, The Development of a Standardized Screening Test for High Temperature Materials,“ (16–19 June 1962 ).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. R. Rummler, “Preliminary Results of a Comparative Study of Several Commercially Available Oxidation Resistance Coatings on Mo-0. 5 Ti Alloy Sheet,” NASA/Langley, presented Sixth Refractory Composites Working Group Meeting, Dayton, Ohio ( 16–19 June 1962 ), NASA/ASD.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. H. Leeds

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations