A Study of Granuloma Formation by Molluscan Cells

  • Thomas C. Cheng
Part of the Comparative Pathobiology book series (CPATH, volume 4)


The development, nature, and functional significance of infectious granulomatoses in mammals, particularly humans, have held a position of central interest in immunopathology for decades. First recognized in patients who had died from tuberculosis, these inflammatory cellular aggregat es, referred to as “tub ercules,” were identified as being comprised of large phagocytic cells or hist iocytes. Furthermore, a prominent feature of each granuloma is the formation of multinucleated giant cells, containing a peripheral zone of lymphocytes, with or without plasma cells.


Acid Phosphatase Acid Phosphatase Activity Granuloma Formation Sodium Fluoride Lead Nitrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barka, T. and Anderson, P. J. (1962). Histochemical methods for acid phosphatase using hexazonium pararosanilin as coupler. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 10, 741–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basch, P. F. (1976). Intermediate host specificity in Schistosoma mansoni. Exptl. Parasitol., 39, 150–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks, C. P. (1953). A comparative study of Schistosoma mansoni in Tropicorbis havanensis and Australorbis glabratus. J. Parasitol., 39, 159–165.Google Scholar
  4. Carter, O. S. and Bogitsh, B. J. (1975). Histologic and cytochemical observations of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Biomphalaria glabrata. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 266, 380–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, T. C. (1978). The role of lysosomal hydrolases in molluscan cellular response to immunologic challenge. Comp. Pathobiol., This volume.Google Scholar
  6. Cheng, T. C. and Auld, K. R. (1977). Hemocytes of the pulmonate gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata. J. Invert. Pathol., 30, 119–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng, T. C. and Yoshino, T. P. (1976). Lipase activity in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca) challenged with bacterial lipids. J. Invert. Pathol., 28, 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DeDuve, C. (1969). The lysosome in retrospect. In: “Lysosomes in Biology and Pathology” Vol. 1. (J. T. Dingle and H. B. Fell, eds.). pp. 3–40. North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  9. DeDuve, C., Pressman, B. C., Gianetto, R., Wattiaux, R., and Appelmans, F. (1955). Tissue fractionation studies 6. Intracellular distribution patterns of enzymes in rat-liver tissue. Biochem. J., 6, 604–617.Google Scholar
  10. Domingo, E. O. and Warren, K. S. (1968a). The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. II. Thymectomy. Am. J. Pathol., 51, 757–767.Google Scholar
  11. Domingo, E. O. and Warren, K. S. (1968b). The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. III. Heterologous antilymphocyte serum. Am. J. Pathol., 52, 613–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Domingo, E. O., Cowan, R. B. T., and Warren, K. S. (1967). The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. I. Immunosuppressive drugs. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 16, 284–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gomori, G. (1950). An improved histochemical technic for acid phosphatase. Stain Technol., 25, 81–85.Google Scholar
  14. Harris, K. R. (1975). The fine structure of encapsulation in Biomphalaria glabrata. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 266, 446–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harris, K. R. and Cheng, T. C. (1975). The encapsulation process in Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with the metastrongylid Angiostrongylus cantonensis: light microscopy. Intl. J. Parasitol., 5, 521–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holt, S. J. (1959). Factors governing the validity of staining methods for enzymes, and their bearing upon Gomori acid phosphatase technique. Exp. Cell Res., Suppl., 7, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeong, K. H. and Heyneman, D. (1976). Leukocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: morphology and behavior of granulocytic cells in vitro. J. Invert. Pathol., 28, 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lie, K. J. and Heyneman, D. (1976). Studies on resistance in snails. 5. Tissue reactions to Echinostoma lindoense in naturally resistant Biomphalaria glabrata. J. Parasitol., 62, 292–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lim, H. K. and Heyneman, D. (1972). Intramolluscan intertrematode antagonism: a review of factors influencing the host parasite system and its possible role in biological control. Adv. Parasitol., 10, 192–253.Google Scholar
  20. Newton, W. L. (1952). The comparative tissue reaction of two strains of Australorbis glabratus to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. J. Parasitol., 38, 362–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Newton, W. L. (1954). Tissue response to Schistosoma mansoni in second generation snails from a cross between two strains of Australorbis glabratus. J. Parasitol., 40, 352–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Newton, W. L. (1955). The establishment of a strain of Australorbis glabratus which combines albinism with high susceptibility to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. J. Parasitol., 41, 526–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nolan, L. E. and Carriker, M. R. (1946). Observations on the biology of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis apressa during twenty years in laboratory culture. Am. Midl. Nat., 36, 467–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Novikoff, A. B. (1963). Lysosomes in the physiology and pathology of cells: contributions of staining methods. In: “Lysosomes” (A. V. S. de Reuck and M.P. Cameron, eds.). pp. 36–73. Little Brown, Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  25. Pan, C. T. (1965). Studies on the host-parasite relationship between Schistosoma mansoni and the snail Australorbis glabratus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 14, 931–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Perrotto, J. L. and Warren, K. S. (1969). The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. IV. Xirradiation. Am. J. Pathol., 56, 279–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Raybourne, R. and Soloman, G. B. (1975). Capillaria hepatica: granuloma f ormat ion to eggs. III. Anti-immunoglobulin augmentation and reagin activity in mice. Exp. Parasitol., 38, 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raybourne, R. B., Solomon, G. B., and Soulsby, E. J. L. (1974). Capillaria hepatica: granuloma formation to eggs. II. Peripheral immunological responses. Exp. Parasitol., 36, 244–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Richards, C. S. (1970). Genetics of a molluscan vector of schistosomiasis. Nature, 227, 806–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Richards, C. S. (1973). Susceptibility of adult Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 22, 748–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Richards, C. S. (1975). Genetic factors in susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata for different strains of Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology, 70, 231–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Richards, C. S. and Merritt, J. W. (1972). Genetic factors in the susceptibility of juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 21, 425–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Solomon, G. B. and Soulsby, E. J. L. (1973). Granuloma formation to Capillaria hepatica eggs. I. Descriptive definition. Exp. Parasitol., 33, 458–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ward, P. A. (1975). Chemotactic factors of host origin. Microbio logy, 1975, 200–201.Google Scholar
  35. Warren, K. S. (1969). The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. V. “Hodgkin’s-like lesion” in SJL/J mice. Am. J. Pathol., 56, 293–303.Google Scholar
  36. Warren, K. S. and Domingo, E. O. (1970). Granuloma format ion around Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum eggs. Size and rate of development, cellular composition, cross-sensitivity, and rate of egg destruction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 19, 292–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Warren, K. S. and Kellermeyer, R. W. (1968). The foreign-body granuloma as a response to chemical mediators of inflammation. J. Clin. Invert., 47, 99a.Google Scholar
  38. Warren, K. S., Domingo, E. O., and Cowan, R. B. T. (1967). Granuloma format ion around schistosome eggs as a manif estat ion of delayed hypersensitivity. Am. J. Pathol., 51, 735–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Yoshino, T. P. and Cheng, T. C. (1976). Fine structural localization of acid phosphatase in granulocytes of the pelecypod Mercenaria mercenaria. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc., 95, 215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Pathobiology Center for Health SciencesLehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

Personalised recommendations