Crystal Growth pp 193-232 | Cite as

Travelling Solvent Techniques

  • G. A. Wolff
  • A. I. Mlavsky


Travelling solvent techniques offer a powerful and versatile approach to the growth of crystals, particularly for materials which cannot readily be melted on account of phase transformations or decomposition. There are two main variants, based on (1) the use of a stationary temperature gradient across a thin solvent zone, and (2) the enforced migration of a thick solvent zone by means of an externally moved heating element. While the first, the travelling solvent method (TSM), is especially suitable for the growth of thin perfect crystals and single-crystal rectifying junctions, the travelling heater method (THM) is advantageous for the growth of large single crystals in that it reduces the detrimental effect of constitutional supercooling. In particular the second method is most useful for the growth of peritectic compounds and of solid solutions of uniform composition. The removal of both dislocations and impurities by a travelling solvent zone has been demonstrated in several cases which are discussed in detail. Analyses of both material and heat-transport and also of crystal growth are outlined for the various methods.


Crystal Growth Solvent Technique Constitutional Supercooling Liquid Zone Vapour Phase Transport 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Wolff
    • 1
  • A. I. Mlavsky
    • 2
  1. 1.General Electric CompanyClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Tyco Laboratories, Inc.WalthamUSA

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