Deformation of Cross-Linked Polymers Below Tg

  • E. H. Andrews
  • P. E. Reed


Tensile tests were carried out on oriented elastomers in the glassy condition, and the deformation process was monitored by ESR. Both the nature and quantity of radicals formed are discussed. It is found that the radical concentration varies with the rate of deformation, the crosslink density of the sample used, the degree of deformation and the purity of the sample. Tests to explore the effect of crystalline morphology on radical formation are also briefly discussed.

Different modes of deformation occur, depending on the preorientation the sample receives prior to testing at temperatures below Tg. The three possible modes are found to be brittle failure, ductile failure associated with crazing, and ductile deformation with no observable crazing. When visible crazing occurs, it is always associated with the absorption of environmental gases, and where oxygen is present, this leads to the formation of peroxy radicals.


Tensile Test Natural Rubber Crosslink Density Network Chain Peroxy Radical 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Andrews, E. H., and Reed, P. E., J. Polym. Sci., Part B, 5, 317 (1967).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Natarajan, R., and Reed, P. E., J. Polym. Sci., Part A-2, 10, 585 (1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kausch, H. H., Reviews in Macromol. Chem., 5, 97 (1970).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roylance, D. K., DeVries, K. L., and Williams, M. L., Fracture 1969, Chapman Hall (1969), p 551.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Becht, J., and Fischer, H., Kolloid. Z. u. Z. Polymere, 229, 167 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhurkov, S. N., and Tomashevsky, E. E., Physical Basis of Yield ana Fracture, Institute of Physics, London (1966).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carstersen, P., Macromol. Chem., 142, 131 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown, R., DeVries, K. L., and Williams, M. L., Paper presented at American Chemical Society meeting, Chicago, September, 1970.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reeve, B., “Morphology and Tensile Properties of Polychloroprene”, Ph.D. Thesis (University of London) (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mead, W., and Reed, P. E., to be published.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhurkov, S. N., Kuksenko, V. S., and Slutsker, A. I., Fracture 1969, Chapman Hall (1969), p 519.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. H. Andrews
    • 1
  • P. E. Reed
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials DepartmentQueen Mary CollegeLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations