ras Oncogenes pp 211-215 | Cite as

Activation of the Human c-Ha-ras-1 Gene by Chemical Carcinogens in vitro

  • Peter G. Lord
  • Terry J. Nolan
  • Terry C. Orton


The study of genetic alterations which are associated with carcinogenesis has progressed rapidly following the discovery of cellular protooncogenes. In the study of chemical carcinogenesis it is perhaps significant that members of the ras gene family are activated in a large number of tumours induced by a variety of chemical compounds. In such tumours the activation of ras genes has been shown to be by point mutation at specific codons, mainly codons 12 and 61, (Barbacid, 1987; Sukumar and Barbacid 1986, Stowers et al. 1987). Direct acting carcinogens are believed to act by modifying bases of DNA, for example by alkylation or bulky adduct formation. Point mutations arise as a consequence of base modifications (Saffhill et al. 1985).


Chemical Carcinogen Chemical Carcinogenesis Allele Specific Oligonucleotide Tumour Derive Cell Line Activate Point Mutation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter G. Lord
    • 1
  • Terry J. Nolan
    • 2
  • Terry C. Orton
    • 1
  1. 1.ICI PharmaceuticalsNr Macclesfield, CheshireUK
  2. 2.School of Health Sciences, Liverpool PolytechnicLiverpoolUK

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