Thrombosis pp 175-185 | Cite as

The Roles of Endothelium, Platelets,and Smooth Muscle Cells in Intimal Healing

  • Michael B. Stemerman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 102)


The continual remodeling of the artery wall significantly narrows the lumen. It contributes to the development of atherosclerotic plaque through the incorporation of lipid into the arterial intima. The steps in the repair of arterial intima include platelet accumulation followed by leukocyte attachment to denuded areas, smooth muscle migration from the media, deposition of extracellular connective tissue components, and endothelial proliferation from undamaged artery branches. Intimal growth and regression seem related to re-endothelialization, platelets, the pituitary, and unidentified factors.


Smooth Muscle Cell Evans Blue Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Platelet Factor Internal Elastic Lamina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ahrens EH: Drugs spotlight program: The management of hyperlipidemia: Whether, rather than how. ANN INTERN MED 85: 8793, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ross R, Glomset JA: The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. N ENGL J MED 295: 369–377, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Arteriosclerosis. Report by National Heart and Lung Institute Task Force on Arteriosclerosis. 1972. DHEW Publication No. 72–219, 13.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    French JE: Atherosclerosis in relation to the structure and function of the arterial intima, with special reference to the endothelium. INT REV EXP PATHOL 5: 253–353, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stemerman MB: Vascular intimai components: Precursors of thrombosis. PROG HEMOSTASIS THROMBO 2: 1–47, 1974.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wolinsky H, Galgov S: Nature of species differences in the medial distribution of aortic vasa vasorum in mammals. CIRC RES 20: 409–421, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ross R: The smooth muscle cell, II. Growth of smooth muscle in culture and formation of elastic fibers. J CELL BIOL 50: 172–186, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jorres I, Majno G: Cellular breakdown within the arterial wall. An ultrastructural study of the coronary artery in young and aging rats. VIRCHOWS ARCH [PATHOL ANAT] 364: 11 1127, 1974.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frist S, Stemerman MB: Arterial Growth and Development, In VASCULAR NEUROEFFECTOR SYSTEMS, edited by Bevan JA. S.J. Karger, 1977, pp. 19–27.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haust MD, More RH: Development of modern theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In THE PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS, edited by Wissler RW, Geer JG. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co., 1972, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schwartz SM, Stemerman MB, Benditt EP: The aortic intima. II. Repair of the aortic lining after mechanical denudation. AM J PATHOL 81: 15–48, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Poole JCF, Cromwell SB, Benditt EP: Behavior of smooth muscle cells and formation of extracellular structures in the reaction of arterial walls to injury. AM J PATHOL 62: 391–414, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mustard JF, Packham MA: The role of blood and platelets in atherosclerosis and complications of atherosclerosis. THROMB DIATH HAEMORRH 33: 444–456, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stemerman MB: Factors governing the healing response of injured arteries. ANN N Y ACAD SCI 283: 310–316, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Minick CR, Murphy GE: Experimental induction of atheroarteriosclerosis by the synergy of allergic injury to arteries and lipid-rich diet. II. Effect of repeatedly injected foreign proteins in rabbits fed a lipid-rich, cholesterol-poor diet. AM J PATHOL 73: 265–300, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reichl D, Simons LA, Myant NB, Pflug JJ, Mills GL: The lipids and lipoproteins of human peripheral lymph, with observations on the transport of cholesterol from plasma and tissue into lymph. CLIN SCI MOL MED 45: 313–329, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baumgartner HR, Studer A: Folgen des Gefässkatheterismus am normo-und hypercholesterinaemischen Kaninchen. PATHOL MICROBIOL 29: 393–405, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stemerman MB: Thrombogenesis of the rabbit arterial plaque: An electron microscopic study. AM J PATHOL 73: 7–26, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stemerman MB, Ross R: Experimental arteriosclerosis. 1. Fibrous plaque formation in primates, an electron microscopic study. J EXP MED 136: 769–789, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burns ER, Spaet RH, Stemerman MB: Intimai cell proliferation following de-endothelialization of the rabbit aorta: A self-limiting process. CLIN RES 24: 437A, 1976. [Abstract].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wight TN, Ross R: Proteoglycans in primate arteries. II. Synthesis and secretion of glycosaminoglycans by arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. J CELL BIOL 67: 675–686, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jaffe EA, Minick CR, Adelman B, Becker CG, Nachman R: Synthesis of basement membrane collagen by cultured human endothelial cells. J EXP MED 144: 209–225, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stemerman MB, Pitlick FA, Dembitzer HB: Electron microscopic immunohistochemical identification of endothelial cells in the rabbit. CIRC RES 38: 146–156, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stemerman MB, Spaet TH, Pitlick FA, Cintron J, Lejnieks I, Tiell ML: Intimai healing: The pattern of reendothelialization and intimai thickening. AM J PATHOL 87: 125–137, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Muggii R, Baumgartner HR: Pattern of membrane invaginations at the surface of smooth muscle cells of rabbit arteries. EXPERIENTIA 28: 1212–1214, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gospodarowicz D, Moran JS: Mitogenic effect of fibroblast growth factor on early passage cultures of human and murine fibroblasts. J CELL BIOL 66: 451–456, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Antoniades HN, Scher CD: Radioimmunoassay of a human growth factor for Balb/C-3T3 cells: Derivation from platelets. PROC NATL ACAD SCI 74: 1973–1977, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Antoniades HN, Scher CD: Growth factors derived from human serum, human platelets and human pituitary; properties and immunologic cross-reactivity. NATL CANCER INST MONOGRAPH No. 48 (In Press).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Friedman RJ, Stemerman MB, Wenz B, Moore S, Gauldie J, Gent M Tiell ML, Spaet TH: The effect of thrombocytopenia on experimental arteriosclerotic lesion formation in rabbits. Smooth muscle cell proliferation and re-endothelialization. J CLIN INVEST 60: 1191–1201, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tiell ML, Stemerman MB: Inhibition of aortic intimal hyperplasia by hypophysectomy in rats. CLIN RES 24: 321A, 1976. [Abstract].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rhee CY, Spaet TH, Stemerman MB, Lajam F, Shiang HH, Caruso E, Litwak RS: Estrogen suppression of surgically induced vascular intimal hyperplasia in rabbits. J LAB CLIN MED 90: 7784, 1977.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fisher-Dzoga K, Wissler RW: Stimulation of proliferation in stationary primary cultures of monkey aortic smooth muscle cells. Part 2. Effect of varying concentrations of hyperlipidemic serum and low density lipoproteins of varying dietary fat origins. ATHEROSCLEROSIS 24: 515–525, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Armstrong ML, Megan MB: Arterial fibrous proteins in cynomolgus monkeys after atherogenic and regression diets. CIRC RES 36: 256–261, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mann GV: Current concepts. Diet-Heart: End of an era. N ENGL J MED 297: 644–650, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael B. Stemerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Beth Israel HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations