Staphylococcal Infections

  • Frederick L. Ruben
  • Carl William Norden

Abstract

Although staphylococci, as a cause of sporadic infection, produce severe morbidity and mortality for the individual, the public-health importance of infections with this organism is its potential to cause epidemics. Major public-health problems resulting from infection with staphylococci include spread of the organism in newborn nurseries and outbreaks of postoperative wound infections. Also of importance is staphylococcal food poisoning, caused by the ingestion of food containing enterotoxin produced by coagulase-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords

Staphylococcus Aureus Chronic Granulomatous Disease Prosthetic Valve Teichoic Acid Staphylococcal Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Altemier, W., Current infection problems in surgery, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Nosocomial Infections (P. S. Brachman and T. C. Eickhoff, eds.), pp. 82–87, Waverly Press, Baltimore, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Archer, G. L. , Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci, in: Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases (G. L. Mandell, R. G. Douglas, and J. E. Bennett, eds.), pp. 1117–1123, Wiley, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armstrong-Esther, C. A. , and Smith, J. E. , Carriage patterns of Staphylococus aureus in a healthy non-hospital population of adults and children, Ann. Hum. Biol. 3(3):221–227 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Artz, C. P., and Moncrief, J. A., The Treatment of Burns, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1969.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barry, A. L. , and Badal, R. E. , Reliability of the microdilution technic for detection of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococus aureus, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 67:489–495 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bartlett, J. G., Onderdonk, A. B., Drude, E., Goldstein, C. , Alpert, S. , and Mccormack, W. M. , Quantitative bacteriology of the vaginal flora, J. Infect. Dis. 136:271–277 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bayston, R., and Penny, S., Excessive production of mucoid substance in staphylococcus Siia, a possible factor in colonization of Holter shunts, Dey. Med. Child. Neurol. 14:25–28 (1972).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bennett, J. V., Shulman, J. A., Rosenstein, B. J., Trembath, B. J., Eickhoff, T. C., and Boring, J. R., Staphylococcal interference studies, Am. J. Epidemiol. 88:410–421 (1968).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bibel, D. J., Greenberg, J. H., and Cook, J. L., Staphylococcus aureus and the microbial ecology of atopic dermatitis, Can. J. Microbiol. 23:1062–1068 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blair, E. B., and Tull, A. H., Multiple infections among newborns resulting from colonization with Staphylococcus aureus 502A, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 52:42–49 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blair, J. E. , and Williams, R. E. O., Phage typing of staphylococci, Bull. Who 24:771–784 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bonventre, P. F. , Weckbach, L. , Staneck, J., Schlievert, P. M., and Thompson, M., Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin F and pyrogenic exotoxin C by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from toxic shock syndromeassociated sources, Infect. Immun. 40:1023–1029 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Breckenridge, J. , and Bergdoll, M. , Outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis due to coagulase-negative entero-toxin producing staphylococcus, N. Engl. J. Med. 284:541–543 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brenner, E. R., and Bryan, C. S., Nosocomial bacteremia in perspective: A community-wide study, Infect. Control 2:219–226 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown, J. D. , and Wheeler, B. , Pyomyositis, report of 18 cases in Hawaii, Arch. Intern. Med. 144:1749–1751 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burke, J. F., Identification of the sources of staphylococci contaminating the surgical wound during operation, Ann. Surg. 158:898–904 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Caswell, H. T. , Groschel, D. , Rogers, F. B. , Learner, N. , Schreck, K. M. , and Schuman, C. R. , A ten year study of staphylococcal disease: Surveillance, control, and prevention of hospital infections, 1956 to 1965, Arch. Environ. Health 17:221–224 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Centers for Disease Control, National Nosocomial Infections Study Report, No. 78–8257, February, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Charnley, J., and Eftehkar, N., Postop infection in total prosthetic replacement of hip joint, Br. J. Surg. 56:641–649 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Christensen, G. D., Simpson, W. A., Bisno, A. L., and Beachey, E. H., Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces, Infect. Immun. 37:318–326 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christensen, G. D. , Bisno, A. L. , Parisi, J. T., Mclaughlin, G., Hester, M. G., and Luther, R. W., Nosocomial septicemia due to multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis , Ann. Intern. Med. 96:1–10 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cluff, L. E. , Reynolds, R. C., Page, D. L. , and Breckenridge, J. L., Staphylococcal bacteremia: Demographic, clinical and microbiological features of 185 cases, Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 79:205–213 (1967).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cluff, L. E. , Reynolds, R. C., Page, D. L. , and Breckenridge, J. L. , Staphylococcal bacteremia and altered host resistance, Ann. Intern. Med. 69:859–873 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Courter, R. D. , and Galton, M. M. , Animal staphylococcal infections and their public health significance, Am. J. Public Health 52:1818–1827 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davenport, D. S., Massanari, R. M., Pfaller, M. A., Bale, M. J., Streed, S. A., and Hierholzer, W. J., Jr., Usefulness of a test for slime production as a marker for clinically significant infections with coagulase-negative staphylococci, J. Infect. Dis. 153:332–339 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dillon, H. C., Impetigo contagiosa: Suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. I. Clinical, bacteriologic and epidemiologic characteristics of impetigo, Am. J. Dis. Child. 115:530–541 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dillon, H. C. Impetigo, in: Communicable and Infectious Diseases (F. H. Top, Sr., and P. F. Wehrle, eds.), pp. 362–368, Mosby, St. Louis, 1976.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dismukes, W. E., Karchmer, A. W., Buckley, M. J., Austen, W. G. , and Swartz, M. N. , Prosthetic valve endocarditis: Analysis of 38 cases, Circulation 48:365–377 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Drake, C. T. , Goldman, E. , Nichols, R. L. , Piatruszka, K. , and Nyhus, L. M., Environmental air and airborne infections, Ann. Surg. 185:219–223 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Drew, W. L. , Barry, A. L. , O’Toole, R. , and Sherris, J. C., Reliability of the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method for detecting methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Appl. Microbiol. 24:240–247 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Echeverria, P., and Vaughn, M. C., “Tropical pyomyositis, “a diagnostic problem in temporate climates, Am. J. Dis. Child. 129:856–857 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eichenwald, H. F., Kotsevalov, O., and Fasso, L. A., The “cloud baby “-An example of bacterial-viral synergism, Am. J. Dis. Child. 100:161–173 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ekstedt, R. D., Immunity to the staphylococci, in: The Staphylococci (J. O. Cohen, ed.), pp. 385–418, Wiley, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Elek, S. D. , Staphylococcus pyogenes, Livingstone, London, 1959.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Elek, S. D., and Conen, P. E. , The virulence of Staphylococcus pyogenes for man: A study of the problems of wound infection, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 38:573–586 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Elhag, K. M. , Mustafa, A. K. , and Sethi, S. K., Septicemia in a teaching hospital in Kuwait. 1. Incidence and aetiology, J. Infect. 10:17–24 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Espinosa, H., Palmer, D. L., Kisch, A. L., Ulrich, J., Eberle, B. , and Reed, W. P. , Clinical and immunologic response to bacteria isolated from tracheal secretions following tracheostomy, J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 68:432–439 (1974).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Farrer, S., and Macleod, C. M., Staphylococcal infections in a general hospital, Am. J. Hyg. 72:38–58 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fekety, F. F. , The epidemiology and prevention of staphylococcal infection, Medicine 43:593–613 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Finland, M. , Changing ecology of bacterial infections as related to antibacterial therapy, J. Infect. Dis. 122:419–431 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Finland, M. , Changing patterns of susceptibility of common bacterial pathogens to antimicrobial agents, Ann. Intern. Med. 76:1009–1036 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Finland, M. , Excursions into epidemiology: Selected studies during the past four decades at Boston City Hospital, J. Infect. Dis. 128:76–124 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Finland, M. , Peterson, O. L. , and Strauss, E. , Staphylococcal pneumonia occurring during an epidemic of influenza, Arch. Intern. Med. 70:183–205 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fisher, A. M., Trever, R. W. , Curtin, J. A. , Schulze, G. , and Miller, D. F. , Staphylococcal pneumonia: A review of 21 cases in adults, N. Engl. J. Med. 258:919–928 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Forse, R. A., Dixon, C., Bernard, N., Martinez, L., Mclean, A. P., and Meakins, J. L., Staphylococcus epidermidis: An important pathogen, Surgery 86:507–514 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Franson, T. R. , Sheth, N. U., Menon, L. , and Sohnle, P. G. , Persistent in vitro survival of coagulase-negative staphylococci adherent to intravascular catheters in the absence of conventional nutrients, J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:559–561 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Glasgow, L. A., and Overall, J. C., Infections of the newborn, in: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (V. C. Vaughan, R. J. Mckay, R. E. Behrman, and W. E. Nelson, eds.), pp. 468–475, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1979.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gluck, L., and Wood, H. F. , Staphylococcal colonization in newborn infants with and without antiseptic skin care, N. Engl. J. Med. 268:1265–1268 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gray, E. D. , Peters, G. , Verstegen, M. , and Regelmann, W. E., Effect of extracellular slime substance from Staphylococcus epidermidis on the human cellular immune response, Lancet 1:365–367 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hassam, Z. A. , Shaw, E. J. , Shooter, R. A. , and Caro, D. B., Changes in antibiotic sensitivity in strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 1952–78, Br. Med. J. 2:536–537 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hieber, J. P., Nelson, A. J., and Mccracken, G. H., Acute disseminated staphylococcal disease in childhood, Am. J. Dis. Child. 131:181–185 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Horder, J., and Horder, E. , Illness in general practice, Practitioner 173:177–187 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Horn, C. V. , and Master, S. , Pyomyositis tropicans in Uganda, East. Afr. Med. J. 45:463–471 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hovelius, B. , and Mardh, P. , Staphylococcus saprophyticus as a common cause of urinary tract infections, Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:328–337 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hunter, G. , and Dandy, D., The natural history of the patient with an infected total hip replacement, J. Bone Jt. Surg. 59B:293–297 (1977).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jackson, L. J., Sottile, M. I., Aguilar-Torres, F. G., Dee, T. H., and Rytel, M. W., Correlation of antistaphylococcal antibody titers with severity of staphylococcal disease, Am. J. Med. 64:629–633 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jacob, E., Durham, L. C., Falk, M. C., Williams, T. J., and Wheat, L. J., Antibody response to teichoic acid and peptidoglycan in Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:122–127 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jellard, J., Umbilical cord as a reservoir of infection in a maternity hospital, Br. Med. J. 1:925–928 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jessen, O., Rosendal, K. , Bulow, P. , Faber, V. , and Eriksen, K. R., Changing staphylococci and staphylococcal infections: A ten-year study of bacteria and cases of bacteremia, N. Engl. J. Med. 281:627–635 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Johnson, G. M. , Lee, D. A. , Regelmann, W. E. , Gray, E. D., Peters, G., and Quie, P. G., Interference with granulocyte function by Staphylococcus epidermidis slime, Infect. Immun. 54:13–20 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Johnson, J. D., Malachowski, N. C., Vosti, K. L., and Sunshine, P. , A sequential study of various modes of ski’ and umbilical care and the incidence of staphylococcal colt, nization and infection in the neonate, Pediatrics 58:354–361 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Johnson, J. E. , Cluff, L. E. , and Goshi, K., Studies on the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infection. I. The effect of repeated skin infections, J. Exp. Med. 113:235–270 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jorgensen, J. H., Laboratory and epidemiologic experience with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the USA, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:693–696 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kahler, R. C., Boyce, J. M., Bergdoll, M. S., Lockwood, W. R., and Taylor, M. R., Case report: Toxic shock syndrome associated with TSST 1 producing coagulase-negative staphylococci, Am.J. Med. Sci. 292:310–312 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Karchmer, A. W., Archer, G. L., and Dismukes, W. E., Staphylococcus epidermidis prosthetic valve endocarditis: Microbiological and clinical observations as guides to therapy, Ann. Intern. Med. 98:447–455 (1987).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kay, C. R. , Sepsis in the home, Br. Med. J. 1:1048–1052 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kaye, D. , Infecting microorganisms, in:Infective Endocardites (D. Kaye, ed.), p. 43, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1976.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kayser, F. H., Methicillin-resistant staphylococci 1965–75, Lancet 2:650–652 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kayser, F. H., and Mak, T. M., Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Am. J. Med. Sci. 264:197–205 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Keene, W. R. , Minchew, B. H. , and Cluff, L. E. , Studies of the epidemiology of staphylococcal infection. Iii. Clinical factors in susceptibility to staphylococcal disease, N. Engl. J. Med. 269:332–337 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kilton, L. J., Fossieck, B. E., Cohen, M. H., and Parker, R. H., Bacteremia due to gram-positive cocci in patients with neoplastic disease, Am. J. Med. 66:596–602 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Klainer, L. M. , Agrawal, H. S. , Mortimer, E. A., and Wolinsky, E., Bacitracin ointment and neonatal staphylococci, Am. J. Dis. Child. 103:546–568 (1962).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Klimek, J. J. , Marsik, F. J., Bartlett, R. C., Weir, B., Shea, P. , and Quintiliani, R. , Clinical epidemiologic and bacteriologic observations of an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a large community hospital, Am. J. Med. 61:340–345 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kloos, W. E., and Smith, P. B., Staphylococci, in: Manual of Clinical Microbiology (E. H. Lennett, W. J. Hausler, Jr., and J. P. Truant, eds.), pp. 83–87, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1980.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kluge, R. M., Calia, F. M., Mclaughlin, J. S., and Hornick, R. B. , Sources of contamination in open heart surgery, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 230:1415–1418 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Koenig, M. G., Staphylococcal infections-Treatment and control, Dis. Mon. pp. 2–36 (April 1968.)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Koenig, M. G., The phagocytosis of staphylococci, in: The Staphylococci (J. O. Cohen, ed.), pp. 365–383, Wiley, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lacey, R. W., Genetic basis, epidemiology, and future significance of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, J. Clin. Pathol. 26:899–913 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ladisch, S., and Pizzo, P. A., Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in children with cancer, Pediatrics 61:231–234 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Leake, D., and Leake, R. , Neonatal suppurative parotitis, Pediatrics 46:203–207 (1970).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Leake, D. L., Krakowiak, F. J., and Leake, R. C., Suppurative parotitis in children, Oral Surg. 31:174–179 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lenhart, N. , and Mudd, S. , Staphylococcidal capability of rabbit peritoneal macrophages in relation to infection and elicitation: Delayed-type hypersensitivity without increased resistance, Infect. Immun. 5:757–762 (1971).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Levin, M. J. , Gardner, P. , and Woldvogel, F. A., “Tropical “pyomyositis: An unusual infection due to Staphylococcus aureus N. Engl. J. Med. 284:196–198 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lewis, J. F., Brake, S. R., Anderson, D. J., and Vredeveld, G. N., Urinary tract infection due to coagulasenegative staphylococcus, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 77:736–739 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lidwell, O. M. , Brock, B. , Shooter, R. A. , Cooke, E. M., and Thomas, G. E. , Airborne infection in a fully airconditioned hospital. IV. Airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus and its nasal acquisition by patients, J. Hyg. 75:445–474 (1975).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Light, I. J. , Walton, R. L. , Sutherland, J. M. , Shinefield, H. R. , and Brackvogel, V. , Use of bacterial interference to control a staphylococcal nursery outbreak, Am. J. Dis. Child. 113:291–300 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Linnemann, C. C., Mason, M. , Moore, P. , Korfhagen, T. R. , and Staneck, J. L. , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Experience in a general hospital over four years, Am. J. Epidemiol. 115:941–950 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Linnemann, C. C., Mckee, E., and Laver, M. C., Staphylococcal infections in a hemodialysis unit, Am. J. Med. Sci. 276:67–75 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Louria, D. B. , Infectious complications of nonalcoholic drug abuse, Annu. Rev. Med. 25:219–232 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Macdonald, K. L. , Osterholm, M. T. , Hedberg, C. W., Schroch, C. G. , Peterson, G. F. , Jentzen, J. M., Leonard, S. A. , and Schlievert, P. M. , Toxic shock syndrome: a newly recognized complication of influenza and influenzalike illness, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 257:1053–1058 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    MakiMaki, D., Goldman, D., and Rhame, F. , Infection control in intravenous therapy, Ann. Intern. Med. 79:867–887 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Maltman, J. R., Orr, J. H., and Hinton, N. A., The effect of desiccation on Staphylococcus pyogenes with special reference to implications concerning virulence, Am. J. Hyg. 72:335–342 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Martin, R. R. , Daugharty, H., and White, A. , Staphylococcal antibodies and hypersensitivity to teichoic acids in man, in: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy-1965 (G. L. Hobby, ed.), pp. 91–96, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1966.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mcgowen, J. E., Barnes, M. W., and Finland, M., Bacteremia at Boston City Hospital: Occurrence and mortality during 12 selected years (1953–1972), with special reference to hospital acquired cases, J. Infect. Dis. 132:316–335 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McGowen, J. E., Parrott, P. L., and Duty, V. P., Nosocomial bacteremia: Potential for prevention of pro-cedure-related cases, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237:2727–2729 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mcgregor, R. M. , The work of a family doctor, Edinburgh Med. J. 57:433–453 (1950)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Melish, M., and Glasgow, L. , Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: The expanded clinical syndrome, J. Pediatr. 78:958–967 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Miles, A. A. , Non-specific defense reactions in bacterial infections, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 66:356–369 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Montgomerie, J. Z., Kalmanson, G. M., and Guse, L. B. , Renal failure and infection, Medicine 47:1–32 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 29:229–230, 297299, 441–445, 495–496 (1980).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Morse, S. I. , Pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections, in: Symposium on New Approaches for Inducing Natural Immunity to Pyogenic Organisms (J. B. Robbins, R. E. Horton, and R. M. Krause, eds.), pp. 131–136, Dhew Publ. 74 553, Washington, D.C., 1973.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Musher, D. M. , and Mckenzie, S. O. , Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus Medicine 56:383–409 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nagel, J. G., Tuazon, C. U., Cardella, T. A., and Sheagren, J. N. , Teichoic acid serologic diagnosis of staphylococcal endocarditis: Use of gel diffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoretic methods, Ann. Intern. Med. 82:13–17 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nagel, J. G. , Sheagren, J. N. , Tuazon, C. U. , and Cardella, T. A. , Teichoic acids in pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, J. Clin. Microbiol. 6:233–237 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nahmias, A. J., and Eickhoff, T. C., Staphylococcal infections in hospitals: Recent developments in epidemiologic and laboratory investigation, N. Engl. J. Med. 265:74–81, 120–128, 177–182 (1961).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Nahmias, A. J., and Schulman, J. A., Epidemiologic as-pects and control methods, in: The Staphylococci (J. O. Cohen, ed.), pp. 483–502, Wiley, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nahmias A., Sakurai, N., Blumberg, R., Doege, A., and Sulzer, C. , The staphylococcus “80/81 complex “: Epidemiological and laboratory observations, J. Infect. Dis. 109:211–222 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nahmias, A. J., Lepper, M. H., Hurst, V., and Mudd, S . , Epidemiology and treatment of chronic staphylococcal infections in the household, Am. J. Public Health 52:1828 - 1843 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nolan, C. M. , and Beaty, H. N. , Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: Current clinical patterns, Am. J. Med. 60:495 500 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nsouli, K. A., Lazarus, J. M., Schoenbaum, S. C., Gottlieb, M. N. , Lowrie, E. G. , and Schocair, M. , Bacteremic infection in hemodialysis, Arch. Intern. Med. 139:1255–1258 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ogston, A. , Report upon microorganisms in surgical diseases, Br. Med. J. 1:369–375 (1881).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    O’Toole, R. D., Drew, L. D., Dahlgren, B. J., and Beaty, H. N., An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Observations in hospital and nursing home, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 213:257–263 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Parker, M. T., and Lapage, S. P, Penicillinase production by Staphylococcus aureus strains from outbreaks of food poisoning, J. Clin. Pathol. 10:313–317 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Parsonnet, J., Harrison, A. E., Spencer, S. E., Reading, A. , Parsonnet, K. C., and Kass, E. H., Nonproduction of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by coagulase-negative staphylococci, J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1370–1372 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Peters, G. , LocCI, R. , and Pulverer, G. , Adherence and growth of coagulase-negative staphylococci on surfaces of intravenous catheters, J. Infect. Dis. 146:479–482 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Petersdorf, R. G., Forsyth, B. R., and Bernanki, D., Staphylococcal parotitis, N. Engl. J. Med. 259:1250–1254 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Peterson, P. K. , Matzke, G. , and Keane, W. F. , Current concepts in the management of peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:604–612 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Phair, J. P. , Watanakunakorn, C., Goldberg, L. , and Carleton, J., Ecology of staphylococci in a general medical service, Appl. Microbiol. 24:967–971 (1973).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Plorde, J. J., and Sherris, J. C., Staphylococcal resistance to antibiotics: Origin, measurement, and epidemiology, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 236:413–434 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ponce De Leon, S. , and Wenzel, R. P. , Hospital acquired bloodstream infections with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Review of 100 cases, Am. J. Med. 77:639–644 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Press, O. W., Ramsey, P. G., Larson, E. B., Fefer, A, and Hickman, R. O., Hickman catheter infections in patients with malignancies, Medicine 63:189–200 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Purser, B. N. , Fatal staphylococcal infections, Med. J. Aust. 2:441–443 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Quie, P. G. , Infections due to neutrophil malfunction, Medicine 52:411–417 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Quie, P. G. , Hill, H. R. , and Davis, A. T. , Defective phagocytosis of staphylococci, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 236:233–243 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Reingold, A. L. , Dan, B. B. , Shands, K. N. , and Broome, C. V. , Toxic-shock syndrome not associated with menstruation, Lancet 1:1–4(1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Robbins, R. N. , Reisier, R. F. , Hehl, G. L. , and Bergdoll, M. S., Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus as determined by tampon disk-membrane-agar method, J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1446–1449 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rosenbach, F. J., Mikroorganismen bei den Wundinfections-krankheiten des Menschen, Bergmann, Wiesbaden, 1884.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rosendal, K. , Bulow, P. , Bentzon, M. W. , and Erikson, K. R. , Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Danish hospitals from January 1st, 1966, to December 31st, 1974, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 84:359–368 (1976).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schaefler, S. , Jones, D. , Perry, W. , Baradet, T., Mayr, E. , and Rampersad, C., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in New York City hospitals: Interhospital spread of resistant strains of type 88, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:536–538 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Scheckler, W. E. , Septicemia in a community hospital 1970 through 1973, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 237:1938–1941 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Scheckler, W. E., Nosocomial infections in a community hospital, 1972 through 1976, Arch. Intern. Med. 138:1792–1794 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Schlesinger, L. S. , Ross, S. C., and Schaberg, D. R., Staphylococcus aureus meningitis: A broad-based epidemiologic study, Medicine 66:148–156 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Schopfer K. , Baerlocher, K., Price, P. , Krech, U., Quie, P. G., and Douglas, S. D., Staphylococcal IgE antibodies, hyperglobulinemia E and Staphylococcus aureus infections, N. Engl. J. Med. 300:835–838 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Schopfer, K. , Douglas, S. D. , and Wilkinson, B. J., Immunoglobulin E antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus cell walls in the sera of patients with hyperimmunoglobulin E and recurrent staphylococcal infection, Infect. Immun. 27:563–568 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sheagren, J. N. , Significance of blood culture isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Arch. Intern. Med. 147:635 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sheth, N. K. , Franson, T. R. , and Sohnle, P. G., Influence of bacterial adherence to intravascular catheters on in vitro antibiotic susceptibility, Lancet 2:1266–1268 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Smith, J. M. B., and Marples, M. J., A natural reservoir of penicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Nature 201:844 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Spers, R. , Shooter, R. A. , Gaya, H. , Patel, N., and Hewitt, J. H., Contamination of nurses’ uniforms with Staphylococcus aureus Lancet 2:233–235 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Stokes, E. J. , Bradley, J. M. , Thompson, R. E. M., Hitchcock, N. M., Parker, M. J., and Walker, J. S., Hospital staphylococci in three London teaching hospitals, Lancet 1:84–88 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Taranta, A. , Lymphocyte mitogens of staphylococcal origin, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 236:362–375 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Thompson, D. J., Gezon, H. M., Rodgers, K. D., Yee, R. B. , and Hatch, T. F. , Excess risk of staphylococcal infection and disease in newborn males, Am. J. Epidemiol. 84:314–328 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Thornton, G. F. , Fekety, F. R., and Cluff, L. E. , Studies of the epidemiology of staphylococcal infection. VIII. Seasonal variation, N. Engl. J. Med. 271:1333–1337 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Todd, J. , and Fishaut, M. , Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group-I staphylococci, Lancet 1:1116–1118 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tuazon, C. U. , and Sheagren, J. N. , Increased rate of carriage of S. aureus among narcotic addicts, J. Infect. Dis. 129:725–727 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Tuazon, C. U., and Sheagren, J. N., Staphylococcal endocarditis in parenteral drug abusers: Source of the organism, Ann. Intern. Med. 82:788–791 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tuazon, C. U. , and Sheagren, J. N. , Teichoic acid antibodies in the diagnosis of serious infections with Staphylococcus aureus Ann. Intern. Med. 84:543–546 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Tuazon, C. U., Hill, R., and Sheagren, J. N., The microbiologic study of street heroin and injection paraphernalia, J. Infect. Dis. 129:327–329 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tuazon, C. U., Perez, A., Kishaba, T., and Sheagren, J. N., Increased carrier rate of Staphylococcus aureus in insulin-injecting diabetics, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 231:1272 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Tuazon, C. U., Sheagren, J. N., Choa, M. S., Marcus, D., and Curtin, J. A., Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: Relationship between formation of antibodies to teichoic acid and development of metastatic abscess, J. Infect. Dis. 137:57–62 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Verhoef, J. , Peterson, P. K. , Kim, Y. , Sabath, L. D., and Quie, P. G., Opsonic requirements for staphylococcal phagocytosis: Heterogeneity among strains, Immunology 33:191–197 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wade, J. C., Schimpff, S. C., Newman, K. A., and Wierner, P. H. , Staphylococcus epidermidis: An increasing cause of infection in patients with granulocytopenia, Ann. Intern. Med. 97:503–508 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Waldvogel, F. A. , Medoff, G., and Swartz, M. N. : Osteomyelitis: A review of clinical features, therapeutic considerations and unusual aspects, N. Engl. J. Med. 282:198 206 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Walters, B. C., Hoffman, H. J., Hendrick, E. B. , and Humphreys, R. P. , Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection. Influences on initial management and subsequent outcome, J. Neurosurg. 60:1014–1021 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Watanakunakorn, C., and Baird, I. M., Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis associated with a removable infected intravenous device, Am. J. Med. 63:253–256 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wellman, W. E., and Senft, R. A., Bacterial meningitis. III. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Mayo Clin. Proc. 39:263–269 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wentworth, B. , Bacteriophage typing of the staphylococcus, Bacteriol. Rev. 27:253–272 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wheat, L. J., White, A. C., and Nroden, C. , Serological diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:764–767 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Williams, R. E. O., Healthy carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: Its prevalence and importance, Bacteriol. Rev. 27:56–71 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Williams, R. E. O. , Epidemiology of airborne staphylococcal infection, Bacteriol. Rev. 30:660–672 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Williams, R. E. O., Jevons, M. P. , Shooter, R. A., Hunter, C. J. W., Girling, J. A., Griffiths, J. D., and Taylor, G. W., Nasal staphylococci and sepsis in hospital patients, Br. Med. J. 2:658–662 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wolinsky, E. , Lipsitz, P. J. , Mortimer, E. A., and Rammelkamp, C. H., Acquisition of staphylococci by newborns: Direct versus indirect transmission, Lancet 2:620–622 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 12.
    Suggested ReadingGoogle Scholar
  163. Elek, S. D. , Staphylococcus pyogenes, Livingstone, London, 1959.Google Scholar
  164. Musher, D. M. , and Mckenzie, S. O. , Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus Medicine 56:383–409 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Nolan, C. M., and Beaty, H. N., Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: Current clinical patterns, Am. J. Med. 60:495–500 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Plorde, J. J. , and Sherris, J. C., Staphylococcal resistance to antibiotics: Origin, measurement, and epidemiology, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 235:413–434 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sheagren, J. N., Staphylococcus aureus, the persistent pathogen, N. Engl. J. Med. 310:1368–1373, 1437–1442 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick L. Ruben
    • 1
  • Carl William Norden
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of MedicineMontefiore Hospital, University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations