Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  • Theodore E. Woodward

Abstract

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute febrile illness transmitted to man by ticks infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Usually sudden in onset, it is characterized by chills, headache, and fever lasting 2 or more weeks. A characteristic rash appears on the extremities on about the 4th febrile day and, later, on the trunk. The exanthem and other anatomical manifestations result from focal areas of endangitis scattered throughout the body. Central nervous system manifestations of delirium and coma as well as shock and renal failure occur in the severely ill. Serum antibodies to Proteus organisms and specific rickettsial antigens appear during the 2nd and 3rd weeks of illness. Chloramphenicol and the tetracyclines are highly specific therapeutically.

Keywords

Scrub Typhus Spotted Fever Infected Tick Tick Bite Spotted Fever Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aikawa, J. K. , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Thomas, Springfield, Ill. , 1966.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burgdorfer, W. , Evaluation of the fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever rickettsia in various tissues, Pathol. Microbiol. 24(Suppl . ):27–39 (1961).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cox, H. R., Use of yolk sac of developing chick embryo as medium for growing rickettsiae of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus groups, Public Health Rep. 53:2241–2247 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cox, H. R. , The spotted fever group, in: Viral and Rickettsial Diseases of Man, 3rd ed. (T. M. Rivers And F. L. Horsfall, Jr., eds.), pp. 828–868, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1959.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deshazo, R. D., Boyce, J. R., Osterman, J. V., And Stephenson, E. H., Early diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Use of primary monocyte culture technique, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 235:1353–1355 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dupont, H. L. , Hornick, R. B., Dawkins, A. T. , Heiner, G. G., Fabrikant, I. B. , Wisseman, C. L. , Jr. , and Woodward, T. E. , Rocky Mountain spotted fever: A comparative study of the active immunity induced by inactivated and viable pathogenic Rickettsia rickettsii, J. Infect. Dis. 128:340–344 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dyer, R. E. , Rumreich, A. S. , and Badger, L. F. , The typhus Rocky Mountain spotted fever group in the United States, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 97:589 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fuller, H. S:, Biologic properties of pathogenic rickettsiae, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 36:311–338 (1959).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hattwick, M. A., O’Brien, R. J., and Hanson, B. F., Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Epidemiology of an increasing problem, Ann. Intern. Med. 84:732–739 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kenyon, R. H., Williams, R. G. , Oster, C. N. , and Pedersen, C. E., Jr., Prophylactic treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:102–104 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kohls, G. M., Vectors of rickettsial diseases, in: Rickettsial Diseases of Man (F. R. Moulton, ed.), pp. 83–96, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 1948.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ley, H. L. , Jr. , Diercks, F. H. , Paterson, P. Y. , Smadel, J. L. , Wisseman, C. L. , Jr. , and Traub, R. , Immunization against scrub typhus. IV. Living Karp vaccine and chemoprophylaxis in volunteers, Am. J. Hyg. 56:303–312 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mccalla, L. P. , Direct transmission from man to man of the Rocky Mountain spotted (tick) fever, Med. Sentinel 16:87 (1908).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parker, R. R. , Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Results of fifteen years of prophylactic vaccination, Am. J. Trop. Med. 21:369 (1941).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pederson, C. E. Jr. , Rocky Mountain spotted fever: A disease that must be recognized, J. Am. Med. Technol. 39:190–198 (1977).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pederson, C. E. , Jr. , Bagley, L. R. , Kenyon, R. H. , Sammons, L. S., and Burger, G. T., Demonstration of Rickettsia rickettsii in the rhesus monkey by immune fluorescence microscopy, J. Clin. Microbiol. 2:121–125 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pincoffs, M. C., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pinkerton, H. , and Maxcy, K. F. , Pathological study of a case of endemic typhus in Virginia with demonstration of rickettsia, Am. J. Pathol. 7:95–103 (1931).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Price, W. H. The epidemiology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever: The characterization of strain virulence of Rickettsia rickettsii, Am. J. Hyg. 58:248–268 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ricketts, H. T., The study of “Rocky Mountain spotted fever” (tick fever) by means of animal inoculations, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 47:358 (1906).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ricketts, H. T., The role of the wood-tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) in Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the susceptibility of local animals to this disease, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 49:24 (1907).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rose, H. M. , Duane, R. B. , and Fischell, E. E. , The treatment of spotted fever with para-aminobenzoicacid, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 129:1160–1163 (1945).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smadel, J. E. , Rocky Mountain spotted fever vaccine, in: Symposium on the Spotted Fever Group, Med. Sci. Publ. No. 7 WRAIR 55–61, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1960.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smadel, J. E., and Jackson, E. B., Rickettsial infections, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Disease, 3rd ed., pp. 743–771, American Public Health Association, New York, 1964.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Spencer, R. R., and Parker, R. R., Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Infectivity of fasting and recently fed ticks, Public Health Rep. 38:33 (1923).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spencer, R. R. , and Parker, R. R. , Studies on Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Vaccination of monkeys and man, Public Health Rep. 40:2159 (1925).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spencer, R. R. , and Parker, R. R. , Studies in Rocky Mountain spotted fever, National Health Service, Hygienic Library Bull. No. 154, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1930.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tigertt, W. D., Studies on Q fever in man, in: Symposium of Q Fever, Med. Sci. Publ. Walter Reed Army Inst. Res., No. 6, pp. 39–46, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1959.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Walker, D. H., and Cain, B. G., A method for specific diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever on fixed, paraffinembedded tissues by immunofluorescence, J. Infect. Dis. 137:206 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wells, G. M. , Woodward, T. E. , Fiset, P. , and Hornick, R. B. , Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by blood transfusion, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 239:2763–2765 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilson, L. B., and Chowning, W. M., Studies in pyroplasmosis hominis (“spotted fever” or “tick fever” of the Rocky Mountains), J. Infect. Dis. 1:31 (1904).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolbach, S. B . , Studies on Rocky Mountain spotted fever, J. Med. Res. 41:1–97 (1919).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Woodward, T. E. , Rickettsial diseases in the United States, Med. Clin. North Am. 43:1507–1535 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Woodward, T. E. , and Jackson, E. B. , Spotted fever rickettsiae, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infection of Man, 4th ed. (F. L. Horsfall, Jr., and T. Tamm, eds.), pp. 1095–1129, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1965.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Woodward, T. E. , Pedersen, C. E. , Jr., Oster, C. N., Bagley, L. R. , Romberger, J. , and Snyder, M. J. , Prompt confirmation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Identification of rickettsiae in skin tissues, J. Infect. Dis. 134:293–301 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

12. Suggested Reading

  1. Harrell, G. T., Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Medicine 28:333–370 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hattwick, M. A. W., O’Brien, R. J., and Hanson, B. F., Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Epidemiology of an increasing problem, Ann. Intern. Med. 84:732–739 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hechemy, K. E. , Laboratory diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, N. Engl. J. Med. 300:859–860 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Philip, R. N., Casperie, A., Maccormack, J. N., Sexton, D. K. , Thomas, L. A. , Anacker, R. L. , Burgdorfer, W. , and Vick, S. , A comparison of serologic methods for diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:56 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Soneshine, D. E. , Bozeman, M. F. , Williams, M. S. , Masiello, S. A. , Chadwick, D. P. , Stocks, N. I. , Lauer, D. M., and Elisberg, B. I. , Epizootiology of epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazeki) in flying squirrels, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:339–349 (1978).Google Scholar
  6. Woodward, T. E. , Section 10, The Rickettsioses, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 9th ed., pp. 746–759, McGrawHill, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  7. Woodward, T. E. , and Jackson, E. B. , Spotted fever rickettsiae, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ed. (F. L. Horsfall, Jr. , and I. Tamm, eds.), pp. 1095–1129, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore E. Woodward
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations