Gonococcal Infections

  • Jonathan Zenilman
  • Paul J. Wiesner


Gonococcal infections have plagued the human race for centuries. A complex interaction of human sexual behavior, social and health-related factors, and biological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae determines the epidemiology of gonorrhea. The term gonorrhea, which means “a flow of seed,” is inadequate to encompass the vast array of clinical manifestations of gonococcal infection. After the gonococcus initially infects columnar and transitional epithelium (eye, oropharynx, respiratory tract, anal canal, uterine cervix, urethra), serious complications can arise through tubal strictures or bacteremia.


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Gonococcal Infection Gonococcal Urethritis Acute Bacterial Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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12. Suggested Reading

  1. Barnes, R. C., and Holmes, K. K., Epidemiology of gonorrhea: Current perspectives, Epidemiol. Rev. 6:1–30 (1984). Discusses long-term epidemiological trends of gonorrhea, programmatic aspects of gonorrhea control programs, and differentiation of disease transmitters into “efficient” and “nonefficient” categories.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Centers for Disease Control, Policy Guidelines for the Detection, Management, and Control of Antibiotic-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1987 (Suppl. 55). Clinical aspects of antibiotic-resistant gonococcal infection are discussed, including laboratory diagnosis, treatment. Staged intervention programs are presented, based on the relative prevalence of resistant strains.Google Scholar
  3. Centers for Disease Control, 1989 Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1989 (Suppl. s-8). (Available free from CPS-DSTD Technical Information Service, Mailstop E-06, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.)Google Scholar
  4. Easmon, C. S. F., and Ison, C. A., Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A versatile pathogen, J. Clin. Pathol. 40:1088–1097 (1987). Article by the foremost British authorities on gonococcal disease in which the laboratory techniques of diagnosis and pathophysiology are discussed. Extensively discusses the various mechanisms of gonococcal antibiotic resistance.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Holmes, K. K., Mardh, P.-A., Sparling, P. F., and Wiesner, P. J., (ed.), Sexually Transmitted Diseases, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989. This encyclopedic volume covers historical, clinical, behavioral, and epidemiological aspects of all sexually transmitted diseases. There are especially good sections on organizing effective STD services.Google Scholar
  6. Hook, E. W., III, and Holmes, K. K., Gonococcal infections, Ann. Inter. Med. 102:229–243 (1985). Comprehensive review of the pathophysiology, pathogenesis, and clinical syndromes associated with gonococcal infection, oriented to a broad audience.Google Scholar
  7. Rothenberg, R. B., The geography of gonorrhea: Empirical demonstration of core group transmission, Am. J. Epidemiol. 117:688–694 (1983). In this article, the “core theory” (Section 5.3), which states that gonorrhea incidence rates have a specific geographic distribution, is developed. The core theory is now becoming the basis for focused intervention programs.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Zenilman
    • 1
  • Paul J. Wiesner
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Center for Prevention ServicesCenters for Disease ControlAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Training and Laboratory Program OfficeCenters for Disease ControlAtlantaUSA

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