Linear Measurements—EDM Instruments

  • Porter W. McDonnell


Electronic measurement is a modern method of precise and rapid determination of slope (line-of-sight) distances. Some electronic distance-measuring instruments (EDMIs) are designed to reduce the slope distances to horizontal distances.


Zenith Angle Horizontal Distance Total Station Vertical Angle Microwave Beam 
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  1. 1.
    P. W. McDonnell, P.O.B. 1985 Total station survey, P.O.B. Magazine Vol. 10, No. 6 (August—September): p. 20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. W. McDonnell, P.O.B. 1984 EDM instruments survey, P.O.B. Magazine Vol. 9, No. 3 (February—March, 1984 ): p. 17.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. A. Kivioja, and W. A. Oren, A new correction to EDM slope distances in applications of untilted corner reflectors, effects of misaligned reflectors and determination of reflector constants, Final Technical Report CE-G-81–1, School of Civil Engineering ( West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University, 1981 ).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. F. Gort, The Hewlett-Packard 3820A electronic total station, Proceedings of the Fall Convention, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. W. McDonnell, P.O.B. 1983 Total station survey, P.O.B. Magazine Vol. 8, No. 6 (August—September, 1983 ): p. 16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

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  • Porter W. McDonnell

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