Map Projections

  • Porter W. McDonnell


The earth is round; maps are flat. If a particular map is to show only a very small portion of the earth, such as a few city blocks, the roundness of the earth is insignificant. On the other hand, if a map is to show the Western Hemisphere, the roundness presents a major problem—i.e., some kind of deformation will be necessary. To illustrate, a large section of orange peel can only be flattened if it is stretched and torn.


Central Angle Standard Line Central Meridian Arctic Circle Standard Parallel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Deetz, C. H., and O. S. Adams. 1944. Elements of map projection. U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, Special Publication No. 68.Google Scholar
  2. McDonnell, P. W., Jr. 1979. Introduction to map projections. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  3. Raisz, E. 1962. Principles of cartography. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  4. Robinson, A. H., and R. D. Sale. 1969. Elements of cartography. 3rd ed. New York: JohifWiley and Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Porter W. McDonnell

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