Field Astronomy for Azimuth Determinations

  • Richard L. Elgin
  • David R. Knowles
  • Joseph H. Senne


Surveying has been defined as the science of determining positions of points on the earth’s surface. The four components of surveying measurements are: (1) vertical (elevations), (2) horizontal (distances), (3) relative direction (angles), and (4) absolute direction (azimuths). Due to recent developments in technology, the accuracy and efficiency of measuring these first three components have increased dramatically. This has resulted in accurate determination of the size and shape of figures. Unfortunately, determination of the orientation of figures, the fourth component, has not kept pace, even though inexpensive technology and equipment exist, such as precise timepieces, portable time signal receivers, ephemerides, programmable calculators and computers. The purpose of this chapter is to provide sufficient theory, calculations, and field procedures so surveys can be accurately oriented without significant increases in time and expense.


Celestial Body Vertical Angle Horizontal Angle Prime Meridian Astronomical Refraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Elgin
  • David R. Knowles
  • Joseph H. Senne

There are no affiliations available

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