Survey Measurement Adjustments by Least Squares

  • Paul R. Wolf


The general subject of errors in measurement was discussed in Chapter 2, and the two classes of errors, systematic and random (or accidental), were defined. It was noted that systematic errors follow physical laws, and that if the conditions producing them are measured, corrections to eliminate these can be computed and applied; however, random errors will still exist in all observed values.


Normal Equation Observation Equation Vation Equation Linearize Observation Equation Traverse Station 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul R. Wolf

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