Survey Measurement Adjustments by Least Squares

  • Paul R. Wolf

Abstract

The general subject of errors in measurement was discussed in Chapter 2, and the two classes of errors, systematic and random (or accidental), were defined. It was noted that systematic errors follow physical laws, and that if the conditions producing them are measured, corrections to eliminate these can be computed and applied; however, random errors will still exist in all observed values.

Keywords

Normal Equation Observation Equation Vation Equation Linearize Observation Equation Traverse Station 
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References

  1. Hirvonen, R. A. 1965. Adjustment by least squares in geodesy and photogrammetry. New York: Frederick Ungar.Google Scholar
  2. Mikhail, E. M. 1976. Observations and least squares. New York: Dun-Donnelly.Google Scholar
  3. Mikhail, E. M. and G. Gracie. 1981. Analysis and adjustment of survey measurements. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  4. Rainsford, H. F. 1957. Survey adjustments and least squares. London: Constable.Google Scholar
  5. Wolf, P. R. 1980. Adjustment computations: Practical least squares for surveyors. 2nd ed. Rancho Cordova, Calif.: Landmark.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul R. Wolf

There are no affiliations available

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