Substrate and Energy Metabolism of the Heart

  • L. H. Opie
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 34)


The purpose of the energy metabolism of the heart is to provide an adequate supply of high-energy phosphate compounds to replace the continuous use of ATP in contraction, in ionic exchange processes, and to a lesser extent in other energy-demanding procsses. Because of the very high turnover rate of ATP in the myocardium, a correspondingly high rate of mitochondrial production of ATP is required. Within the mitochondria, the citrate cycle of Krebs breaks down the critical compound acetyl CoA to CO2 and hydrogen atoms; the latter in turn yield electrons which are conveyed along the electron transmitter chain to yield ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, before finally combining with oxygen to form water.


Free Fatty Acid Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphatidyl Choline Glycolytic Flux Citrate Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Locke FS, Rosenheim O: Contributions to the physiology of the isolated heart: the consumption of dextrose by mammalian cardiac muscle. Physiol (Lond) 36: 205–220, 1907.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knowlton FP, Starling EH: The influence of variations of temperature and blood-pressure on the performance of the isolated mammalian heart. J Physiol 45: 146–163, 1912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Evans CL: The effect of glucose on the gaseous metabolism of the isolated mammalian heart. J Physiol 47: 407–418, 1914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cruickshank EWH, Kosterlitz HW: Utilization of fat by aglycaemic mammalian heart. J Physiol 99: 208, 1941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morgan HE, Neely JR, Brineaux JP, Park CR: Regulation of glucose transport. In: Chance B, Estabrook RW, Williamson JR (eds) Control of energy metabolism. New York: Academic, 1965, pp 347–355.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fisher RB, Zacchariah P: The mechanism of the uptake of sugar by the rat heart and the action of insulin on this mechanism. J Physiol 158: 73–85, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park CR, Reinwein D, Henderson MJ, Cadenas E, Morgan HE: The action of insulin on the transport of glucose through the cell membrane. Am J Med 26: 674–684, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Randle PJ, Morgan HE: Regulation of glucose uptake by muscle. Vitam Horm 20: 199–243, 1962.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gerards P, Graf W, Kammermeier H: Glucose transfer studies in isolated cardiocytes of adult rats. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 141–149, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Opie LH, Norris RM, Thomas M, Holland AJ, Owen P, Van Noorden S: Failure of high concentrations of free fatty acids to provoke arrhythmias in experimental myocardial infarction. Lancet 1: 818822, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Neely JR, Liebermeister H, Battersby EJ, Morgan HE: Effect of pressure development of oxygen consumption by isolated rat heart. Am J Physiol 212: 804–814, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Randle PJ, Smith GH: Regulation of glucose uptake by muscle. I. The effects of insulin, anaerobiosis and cell poisons on the uptake of glucose and release of potassium by isolated rat diaphragm. Biochem J 70: 490–500, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pasteur L: Etudes sur la Biere. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1876.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hofmann E: The significance of phosphofructokinase in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Rev Physiol Biochemistry Pharmacol 75: 2–68, 1976.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kübler W, Spieckermann PG: Regulation of glycolysis in the ischemic and the anoxic myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1: 351–357, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Williamson JR: Glycolytic control mechanisms. II. Kinetics of intermediate changes during the aerobic—anoxic transition in perfused rat heart. J Biol Chem 241: 5026–5036, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Neely JR, Whitmer JT, Rovetto MJ: Inhibition of glycolysis in hearts during ischemic perfusion. In: Recent advances in studies on cardiac structure and metabolism, vol 1, 1976, pp 243–248 University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mochizuki S, Neely JR: Control of glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol 11: 221–236, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rovetto MJ, Lamberton WF, Neely JR: Mechanism of glycolytic inhibition in ischemic rat hearts. Circ Res 37: 742–751, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Apstein CS, Deckelbaum L, Mueller M, Hagopian L, Hood WB Jr: Graded global ischemia and reperfusion: cardiac function and lactate metabolism. Circulation 55: 864–872, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gevers W: Generation of protons by metabolic processes in heart cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol 9: 867–874, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller TB: A dual role for insulin in the regulation of cardiac glycogen synthase. J Biol Chem 253: 5389–5394, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morgan HE, Parmeggiani A: Regulation of glycogenolysis in muscle. III. Control of muscle glycogen phosphorylase activity. J Biol Chem 239: 2440 2445, 1964.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Evans CL, Grande F, Hsu FY: Two simple heart-oxygenator circuits for blood-fed hearts. Q J Exp Physiol 24: 283–287, 1934.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Achs MJ, Garfinkel D, Opie LH: Computer simulation of metabolism of glucose-perfused rat heart in a work-jump. Am J Physiol 243: R389 — R399, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Drake AJ, Papadoyannis DE, Butcher RG, Stubbs J, Noble MIM: Inhibition of glycolysis in denervated dog heart. Circ Res 47: 338–345, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hirche HJ, Langohr HD: Hemmung der Milchsäureaufnahme im Herzmuskel narkotisierter Hunde durch hohe arterielle Konzentration der freien Fettsäuren. Pflugers Archiv 293: 208–214, 1967.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rose CP, Goresky CA: Constraints on the uptake of labeled palmitate by the heart: the barriers at the capillary and sarcolemmal surfaces and the control of intracellular sequestration. Circ Res 41: 534–545, 1979.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lassers BW, Kaijser L, Wahlqvist ML, Carlson LA: Relationship in man between plasma free fatty acids and myocardial metabolism of carbohydrate substrates. Lancet 2: 448–450, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Randle PJ: Regulation of glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation in cardiac muscle. Circ Res (Suppl 1)38: 8–12, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brin M, Olson RE, Stare FJ: Metabolism of cardiac muscle. V. Comparative studies with L(+) and D(—) Ct4 in duck and rat tissues. J Biol Chem 199:467–473, 1952.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Garfinkel D: Lactate permeation. In: Discussion of regulation of glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation in cardiac muscle, by Randle PJ. Circ Res (Suppl 1 ): 38: 13–15, 1976.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krasnow N, Neill WA, Messer JV: Myocardial lactate and pyruvate metabolism. J Clin Invest 41: 2075–2085, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gertz EW, Wisneski JA, Neese R, Houser A, Korte R, Bristow JD: Myocardial lactate extraction: multi-determined metabolic function. Circulation 61: 256–261, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Opie LH, Owen P, Thomas M, Samson R: Coronary sinus lactate measurements in the assessment of myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol 32: 295–305, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Resnekov L, Falicov RE: Thyrotoxicosis and lactate-producing angina pectoris with normal coronary arteries. Br Heart J 39: 1051–1057, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Willebrands AF: The metabolism of elaidic acid in the perfused rat heart. Biochim Biophys Acta 116: 583–585, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Opie LH, Metabolism of the heart. I. Metabolism of glucose, glycogen, free-fatty acids and ketone bodies. Am Heart J 76: 685–698, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Evans JR, Opie LH, Renold AE: Pyruvate metabolism in the perfused rat heart. Am J Physiol 205: 971–976, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zahlten RN, Hochberg AA, Stratman HW, Lardy HA: Pyruvate uptake in rat liver mitochondria: transport or adsorption. FEBS Lett 21: 11–13, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kobayashi K, Neely JR: Mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase activation by increased heart work. J M of Cell Cardiol 15: 369–382, 1983.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kohn MC, Achs MJ, Garfinkel D: Computer simulation of metabolism in pyruvate-perfused rat heart. III. Pyruvate dehydrogenase. Am J Physiol 237: R167 — R173, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Williamson JR, Ford C, Illingworth J, Safer B: Coordination of citric acid cycle activity with electron transport flux. Circ Res (Suppl 1)38: 39–48, 1976.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bremer J: Pyruvate dehydrogenase, substrate specificity and product inhibition. Eur J Biochem 8: 535–540, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kerbey AL, Randle PJ, Cooper RH, Whitehouse S, Pask HT, Denton RM: Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart. Mechanism of regulation of proportions of dephosphorylated and phosphorylated enzyme by oxidation of fatty acids and ketone bodies and of effects of diabetes: role of coenzyme A, acetyl—coenzyme A and reduced and oxidized nicotinamide—adenine dinucleotide. Biochem J 154: 327–348, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kobayashi K, Neely JR: Effects of ischemia and re-perfusion on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in isolated rat hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol 15: 359–367, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mowbray J, Ottaway JH: The effect of insulin and growth hormone on the flux of tracer from labelled lactate in the perfused rat heart. Eur J Biochem 36: 369–379, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ohlen J, Siess EA, Löffler G, Wieland OH: The effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase interconversion in heart muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats. Diabetologia 14: 135–139, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bing RJ: Cardiac metabolism. Physiol Rev 45: 17 1213, 1965.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bing RJ, Siegel A, Vitale A, Balbano F, Sparks E, Taeschler M, Klapper M, Edwards S: Metabolic studies on the human heart in vivo. I. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism of the human heart. Am J Med 15: 284–296, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bing RJ, Siegel A, Ungar I, Gilbert M: Metabolism of the human heart. II. Studies on fat, ketone and amino acid metabolism. Am J Med 16: 504515, 1954.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shipp JC, Opie LH, Challoner D: Fatty acid and glucose metabolism in the perfused heart. Nature (Load) 189: 1018–1019, 1961.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Neely JR, Morgan HE: Relationship between carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the energy balance of heart muscle. Annu Rev Physiol 36: 413459, 1974.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Menahan LA, Hron WT: Regulation of acetoacetylCoA in isolated perfused rat hearts. Eur J Biochem 119: 295–299, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Opie LH: Metabolism of the heart in health and disease. II. Metabolism of triglycerides. Substrates for oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial metabolism. Synthetic reactions. Excitation coupling. Am Heart J 77: 100–122, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lassers BW, Kaijser L, Carlson LA: Myocardial lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in healthy, fasting men at rest: studies during continuous infusion of 3H-palmitate. Eur J Clin Invest 2: 348–358, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Olson RE, Hoeschen RJ: Utilization of endogenous lipid by the isolated perfused rat heart. Biochem J 103: 796, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Evans JR: Structure and function of heart muscle. Circ Res 15: 1–224, 1964.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Van der Vusse GJ, Roemen THM, Prinzen FW, Coumans WA, Reneman RS: Uptake and tissue content of fatty acids in dog myocardium under normoxic and ischemic conditions. Circ Res 50: 538–546, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Opie LH, Owen P: Assessment of mitochondrial free NAD +/NADH ratios and oxaloacetate concentrations during increased mechanical work in isolated perfused rat heart during production or uptake of ketone bodies. Biochem J 148: 403–415, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hochachka DW. Neely JR, Driedzic WR: Integration of lipid utilization with Krebs cycle activity in muscle. Fed Proc 36: 2009–2014, 1977.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fritz IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol 197: 297–304, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fritz IB, Yue KTN: Long-chain carnitine acyltransferase and the role of acylcarnitine derivatives in the catalytic increase of fatty acid oxidation induced by carnitine. J Lipid Res 4: 279–288, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hoppel CL, Tomec RJ: Carnitine palmityl transferase. J Biol Chem 247: 832–841, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kopec B, Fritz IB: Comparison of properties of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I with those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II and preparation of antibodies to carnitine palmitoyltransferases. J Biol Chem 248: 4069–4074, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ramsay RR, Tubbs PK: The mechanism of fatty acid uptake by heart mitochondria: an acylcarnitine-carnitine exchange. FEBS Lett 54: 21–25, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pande SV: A mitochondrial carnitine acylcarnitine translocase system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72: 883–887, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pande SV, Parvin R: Characterization of carnitine acylcarnitine translocase system of heart mitochondria. J Biol Chem 251: 6683–6691, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Idell-Wenger JA, Grotyohann LW, Neely JR: Regulation of fatty acid utilization in heart: role of the carnitine-acetyl CoA-transferase and carnitine-acetyl carnitine translocase system. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 413–417, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pande SV, Blanchaer MC: Reversible inhibition of mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate phosphorylation by long chain acyl CoA esters. J Biol Chem 246: 402–411, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Heldt HW, Jacobs H, Klingenberg M: Endogenous ADP of mitochondria, an early phosphate acceptor of oxidative phosphorylation as disclosed by kinetic studies with C14 labelled ADP and ATP and with atractyloside. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 18: 174–178, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shug AL, Shrago E, Bittar N, Folts JD, Kokes JR: Long chain fatty acyl CoA inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocase in the ischemic myocardium. Am J Physiol 228: 689–692, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Garland PB, Randle PJ: Regulation of glucose uptake by muscle: effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies, and of alloxan-diabetes and starvation on pyruvate metabolism and on lactate/pyruvate and 1-glycerol 3-phosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate concentration ratios in rat heart and rat diaphragm muscles. Biochem J 93: 678–687, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Oram JF, Bennetch SL, Neely JR: Regulation of fatty acid utilization in isolated perfused rat hearts. J Biol Chem 248: 5299–5309, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lochner A, Van Niekerk I, Kotze JCN: Mitochondrial acyl CoA, adenine nucleotide translocase activity and oxidative phosphorylation in myocardial ischaemia. J Mol Cell Cardiol 13: 991–997, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    La Noue KF, Watts JA, Koch CD: Adenine nucleotide transport during cardiac ischemia. Am J Physiol 241: H663 - H677, 1981.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Barbour RL, Chan SHP: Characterization of the kinetics and mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP-ATP carrier. J Biol Chem 256: 1940–1948, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Moore KH, Radloff JF, Koen AE, Hull PE: Incom-plete fatty acid oxidation by heart mitochondria: beta-hydroxy fatty acid production. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14:451–459, 1982.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Monroy G, Kelker HC, Pullman ME: Partial purification and properties of an acyl coenzyme A: synglycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase from rat liver mitochondria. J Biol Chem 248: 2845–2852, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Opie LH: Metabolism of free fatty acids, glucose and catecholamines in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 36: 938–953, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hough FS, Gevers W: Catecholamine release as a mediator of intracellular enzyme activation in ischaemic perfused heart. S Afr Med J 49: 538–543, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Christian DR, Kilsheimer GS, Pettett G, Paradise R, Ashmore J: Regulation of lipolysis in cardiac muscle: a system similar to the hormone-sensitive lipase of adipose tissue. Adv Enzyme Regul 7: 7181, 1969.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Crass MF III, Shipp JC, Pieper GM: Effects of catecholamines on myocardial endogenous substrates and contractility. Am J Physiol 228: 618–627, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Severson DL, Hurley B: Regulation of rat heart triacylglycerol ester hydrolases by free fatty acids, fatty acyl CoA and fatty acyl carnitine. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 467–474, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Opie LH: Role of carnitine in fatty acid metabolism of normal and ischemic myocardium. Am Heart J 97: 375–388, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Challoner DR, Steinberg D: Metabolic effect of epinephrine on the oxygen consumption of the per-fused rat heart. Nature 205: 602–663, 1965.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Glaviano VV, Goldberg JM, Pindok M, Wallick D, Aranis C: Cholinergic intervention on myocardial dynamics and metabolism in the nonworking dog heart. Circ Res 41: 508–514, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Oliver MF, Kurien VA, Greenwood TW: Relation between serum free fatty acids and arrhythmias and death after acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1: 710–715, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Opie LH, Owen P, Riemersma RA: Relative rates of oxidation of glucose and free fatty acids by ischemic and non-ischaemic myocardium after coronary artery ligation in the dog. Eur J Clin Invest 3: 419435, 1973.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Challoner DR, Steinberg D: Oxidative metabolism of myocardium as influenced by fatty acids and epinephrine. Am J Physiol 211: 897–892, 1966.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pearce FJ, Forster J, De Leeuw G, Williamson JR, Tutwiler GF: Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in normal and hypoxic perfused rat hearts by 2-tetradecylglycidic acid. J Mol Cell Cardiol 11: 893–915, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kurien VA, Yates PA, Oliver MF: The role of free fatty acids in the production of ventricular arrhythmias after acute coronary artery occlusion. Eur J Clin Invest 1: 225–241, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Henderson AH, Craig RJ, Gorlin R, Sonnenblick EH: Free fatty acids and myocardial function in per-fused rat hearts. Cardiovasc Res 4: 466–472, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    De Leiris J, Opie LH: Effect of substrates and of coronary artery ligation on mechanical performance and on release of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase in isolated working rat hearts. Cardiovasc Res 12: 585–596, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Liedtke AJ, Nellis SH, Whitesell LF: Effects of carnitine isomers on fatty acid metabolism in ischemic swine hearts. Circ Res 48: 859–866, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Idell-Wenger JA, Grotyohann LW, Neely JR: Coenzyme A and carnitine distribution in normal and ischemic hearts. J Biol Chem 253: 4310–4318, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wood JM, Rush B, Pitts BJR, Schwartz A: Inhibition of bovine heart Na+, K+-ATPase by palmitylcarnitine and palmityl CoA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 74: 677–683, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sobel BE, Corr PB, Robison AK: Accumulation of lysophosphoglyceride with arrhythmogenic properties in ischemic myocardium. J Clin Invest 62: 546553, 1978.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Corr PB, Gross RW, Sobel BE: Arrhythmogenic amphiphilic lipids and the myocardial cell membrane. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 619–626, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Opie LH, Tansey MJ, Kennelly BM: Proposed metabolic vicious circle in patients with large myocardial infarcts and high plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Lancet 2: 890–892, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Man RYK, Choy PC: Lysophosphatidylcholine causes cardiac arrhythmia. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 173–175, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Katz AM, Messineo FC: Lipid—membrane interactions and the pathogenesis of ischemic damage in the myocardium. Circ Res 48: 1–16, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rudolph W, Maas D, Richter J, Hasinger F, Hofmann H, Dohrn P: Uber die Bedeutung von acetoacetat and beta-hydroxybutyrat im stoffwechsel des menslichen Herzens. Klin Wochenschr 43: 445451, 1965.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ungar I, Gilbert M, Siegel A, Blain JM, Bing RJ: Studies on myocardial metabolism. IV. Myocardial metabolism in diabetes. Am J Med 18: 385–396, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Randle PJ, Garland PB, Hales CN, Newsholme EA: The glucose fatty-acid cycle: its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1: 785–789, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    La Noue KF, Walajtys EI, Williamson JR: Regulation of glutamate metabolism and interactions with the citric acid cycle in rat heart mitochondria. J Biol Chem 248: 7171–7183, 1973.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Digerness SB, Reddy WJ: The malate—aspartate shuttle in heart mitochondria. J Mol Cell Cardiol 8: 779–785, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Murphy E, Coll KE, Viale RO, Tischler ME, Williamson JR: Kinetics and regulation of the glutamate—aspartate translocator in rat liver mitochondria. J Biol Chem 254: 8369–8376, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    La Noue KF, Tischler ME: Electrogenic characteristics of mitochondrial glutamate-aspartate anti-porters. J Biol Chem 249: 7522–7528, 1974.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Puckett SW, Reddy WJ: A decrease in the malateaspartate shuttle and glutamate translocase activity in heart mitochondria from alloxan-diabetic rats. J Mol Cell Cardiol 11: 173–187, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kobayashi K, Neely JR: Control of maximum rates of glycolysis in rat cardiac muscle. Circ Res 44: 166–175, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Noakes TD: Exercise and the heart. MD thesis, University of Cape Town, 1981.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    McGinnis JF, De Vellis J: Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in human tissues: evidence for a heart specific form. J Mol Cell Cardiol 11: 795–802, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Clark MG, Patten GS, Filsell OH: Evidence for an alpha-adrenergic receptor-mediated control of energy production in hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 313–321, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bricknell OL, Opie LH: Glycolytic ATP and its products during ischaemia in isolated Langendorffperfused rat hearts. In: Kobayashi T, Sano T, Dhalla NS (eds) Recent advances in studies on cardiac structure and metabolism. Vol. 2: Heart function and metabolism. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1978, pp 509–519.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Opie LH, Bricknell OL: Role of glycolytic flux in effect of glucose in decreasing fatty acid-induced release of lactate dehydrogenase from isolated coronary ligated rat heart. Cardiovasc Res 13: 693–702, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cowan JC, Vaughan Williams EM: The effects of palmitate on intracellular potentials recorded from Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig hearts in normoxia and hypoxia and during perfusion at reduced rate of flow. J Mol Cell Cardiol 9: 327–342, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bricknell OL, Daries PS, Opie LH: A relationship between adenosine triphosphate, glycolysis and ischaemic contracture in the isolated rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 13: 941–945, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bing OHL, Fishbein MC: Mechanical and structural correlates of contracture induced by metabolic blockade in cardiac muscle from the rat. Circ Res 45: 298–308, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Entman ML, Bornet EP, Van Winkle WB, Goldstein MA, Schwartz A: Association of glycogenolysis with cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. II. Effect of glycogen depletion, deoxycholate solubilization and cardiac ischemia: evidence for a phosphorylase kinase membrane complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol 9: 515–528, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Saks VA, Chernousova GB, Gukovsky DE, Smirnov VN, Chazov EI: Studies of energy transport in heart cells. Mitochondrial isoenzymes of creatine phosphokinase: kinetic properties and regulatory action of Mgt+ ions. Eur J Biochem 57: 273–290, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Saks VA, Lipina NV, Smirnov VN, Chazov EI: Studies of energy transport in heart cells. The functional coupling between mitochondrial creatine phosphokinase and ATP-ADP translocase: kinetic evidence. Arch Biochem Biophysiol 173: 34–41, 1976.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Opie LH: High energy phosphate compounds. In: Drake-Holland AJ, Noble MIM (eds) Cardiac metabolism. London: Wiley, 1983, pp 279–307.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Seraydarian MW, Artaza L: Regulation of energy metabolism by creatine in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells in culture. J Mol Cell Cardiol 8: 669–678, 1976.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Krzanowski J, Matchinsky FM: Regulation of phosphofructokinase by phosphocreatine and phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 34: 816–823, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ponce-Hornos JE, Langer GA, Nudd LM: Inorganic phosphate: its effects on Ca exchange and compartmentalization in cultured heart cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol 14: 41–51, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Soboll S, Bünger R: Compartmentation of adenine nucleotides in the isolated working guinea pig heart stimulated by adrenaline. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 362: 125–132, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wollenberger A, Babskii EB, Krause E-G, Genz S, Blohm D, Bogdanova EV: Cyclic changes in levels of cyclic AMP in frog myocardium during the cardiac cycle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 55: 446452, 1973.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fossel ET, Morgan HE, Ingwall JS: Measurement of changes in high-energy phosphates in the cardiac cycle by using gated i1P nuclear magnetic resonance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 3654–3658, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Altschuld RA, Brierley GP: Interaction between the creatine kinase of heart mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation. J Mol Cell Cardiol 9: 875–896, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hearse DJ: Oxygen deprivation and early myocardial contractile failure: a reassessment of the possible role of adenosine triphosphate. Am J Cardiol 44: 1115–1121, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Laiho KU, Trump BF: Studies on the pathogenesis of cell injury-effects of inhibitors of metabolism and membrane function on the mitochondria of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Lab Invest 32: 163–182, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Trump BF, Mergner WJ, Kahng MW, Saladino AJ: Studies on the subcellular pathophysiology of ischemia. Circulation 53: 17–26, 1976.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gudbjarnason S, Mathes R, Ravens KG: Functional compartmentation of ATP and creatine phosphate in heart muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1: 325–339, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Haworth RA, Hunter DR, Berkoff HA: Contracture in isolated adult rat heart cells: role of Ca2+, ATP and compartmentation. Circ Res 49: 1119 1128, 1981.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Randle PJ, England PJ, Denton RM: Control of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its interactions with glycolysis during acetate utilization in rat heart. Biochem J 117: 677–695, 1970.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bowman RH: Effects of diabetes, fatty acids, and ketone bodies on tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in the perfused rat heart. J Biol Chem 241: 3041–3048, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Opie LH: Effects of regional ischemia on metabolism of glucose and fatty acids. Circ Res 38, suppl 1: 52–74, 1975.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Moravec J, Corsin A, Owen P, Opie LH: Effect of increased aortic perfusion pressure on fluorescent emission of the isolated rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 6: 187–200, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Opie LH: The Heart. Physiology, Metabolism, Pharmacology and Therapy. Grune and Stratton, Lonwon & New York, 1984. In press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. H. Opie

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations