Although we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the attention paid to adult anxiety disorders during the 1970s and 1980s, it is only very recently that a similar trend has begun to emerge for the childhood anxiety disorders. It is probable that the major classification changes that appeared in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III; APA, 1980) are responsible, at least in part, for spurring interest in anxious children and adolescents. In the DSM-III, a new diagnostic category was introduced that specifically focused on anxiety disorders that usually first arise during childhood or adolescence: “Anxiety Disorders of Childhood or Adolescence.” This category included three specific disorders (separation anxiety disorder, avoidant disorder, and overanxious disorder), only one of which (“overanxious reaction”) had appeared in previous versions of the DSM.


Anxiety Disorder Generalize Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Somatic Complaint Separation Anxiety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Berney, T., Kolvin, I., Bhate, S. R., Garside, R. F., Jeans, J., Kay, B., Scarth, L. (1981). School phobia: A therapeutic trial with clomipramine and short-term outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 110–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Estes, H. R., Haylett, C. H., Johnson, E. M. (1956). Separation anxiety. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 10, 68 2695.Google Scholar
  5. Francis, G., Last, C. G., Strauss, C. C. (1987). Avoidant disorder in childhood and adolescence. Unpublished raw data.Google Scholar
  6. Garvey, W., Hegreves, S. R. (1966). Desensitization techniques in the treatment of school phobia. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 36, 147–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gittelman-Klein, R., Klein, D. F. (1971). Controlled imipramine treatment of school phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 204–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harris, E. L., Noyes, R., Crowe, R. R., Chaudhry, D. R. (1983). Family study of agoraphobia: Report of a pilot study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 1061–1064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kelly, E. W. (1973). School phobia: A review of theory and treatment. Psychology in the Schools, 10, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Last, C. G., Francis, G., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., Strauss, C. C. (1987a). Separation anxiety and school phobia: A comparison using DSM-III criteria. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 653–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Last, C. G., Francis, G., Strauss, C. C. (In press). Assessing fears in anxiety disordered children with the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Journal of Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
  12. Last, C. G., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., Finkelstein, R., Strauss, C. C. (1987b). Comparison of DSM-III separation anxiety and overanxious disorders: Demographic characteristics and patterns of comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 26, 527–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Last, C. G., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., Francis, G., Grubb, H. J. (1987c). Psychiatric illness in the mothers of anxious children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1580–1583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Last, C. G., Strauss, C. C., Francis, G. (1987d). Comorbidity among childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 726–730.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Leventhal, T., Sills, M. (1964). Self-image in school phobia. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 34, 685–695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Strauss, C. C., Lease, C. A., Last, C. G., Francis, G. (in press). Developmental differences between children and adolescents with overanxious disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Google Scholar
  17. Trueman, D. (1984). What are the characteristics of school phobic children? Psychological Reports, 54, 191–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Weissman, M. M., Leckman, J. F., Merikangas, K. R., Gammon, G. D., Prusoff, B. A. (1984). Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children: Results from the Yale Family Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 845–852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia G. Last
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations