Lakes pp 91-126 | Cite as

Man-Made Chemical Perturbation of Lakes

  • W. Stumm
  • P. Baccini


Pollution may be defined as an alteration of man’s surroundings in such a way as they become unfavorable to him. This implies that pollution is not solely a matter of the addition of contaminants or pollutants to the environment, but it can also result from other direct or indirect consequences of man’s actions. Most of the energy utilized by our industrial society for its own advantage (heat production, manipulation of the landscape, urban construction, agriculture, forestry, geological exploitations, construction of dams) ultimately affects the ecosystems and creates chemical perturbations. Man—as a terrestrial being—interferes primarily with the terrestrial environment; because of the interdependence of the land and water ecosystems and because of the extreme sensitivity of the latter, the stress imposed upon the environment by civilization becomes primarily reflected in the aquatic ecosystems.


Heavy Metal Lake Water Great Lake Drainage Area Mass Balance Model 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

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  • W. Stumm
  • P. Baccini

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