Chlamydial Infections

  • E. Russell Alexander
  • H. Robert Harrison


There are four quite different disease patterns that result from human infection with chlamydial organisms. Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, by far the most important as a human pathogen, may result in trachoma, a variety of other syndromes that accompany ocular or genital infection, or lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Chlamydia psittaci has one human disease manifestation—psittacosis.


Chlamydia Trachomatis Chlamydial Infection Elementary Body Bacterial Conjunctivitis Nongonococcal Urethritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alexander, E. R., Chlamydia: The organism and neonatal infection, Hosp. Pract. 14:63–69 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander, E. R., Wang, S.-P., and Grayston, J. T., Further classification of Tric agents from ocular trachoma and other sources by the mouse toxicity prevention tests, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63:1469–1478 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker, Y., The Chlamydia: Molecular biology of procaryotic obligate parasites of eucaryocytes, Microbiol. Rev. 42:274–306 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bedson, S. P., The psittacosis—lymphogranuloma group of viruses, Br. Med. Bull. 9:226–227 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bedson, S. P., The use of the complement-fixation reaction in the diagnosis of human psittacosis, Lancet 2:1277–1280 (1935) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beem, M. O., and Saxon, E. M., Respiratory-tract colonization and a distinctive pneumonia syndrome in infants infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, N. Engl. J. Med. 296:306–310 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caldwell, H. D., and Kuo, C. C., Serologic diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum by counterimmunoelectrophoresis with a Chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen, J. Immunol. 118:442–446 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Centers for Disease Control, Psittacosis Surveillance, Annual Summary, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Collier, L. H., and Sowa, J., Isolation of trachoma virus in embryonated eggs, Lancet 1:993–994 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9a.
    Darougar, S., Mannickendam, M. A., El-Shiekh, H., Treharne, J. D., Woodland, R. M., and Jones, B. R., Animal models for the study of chlamydial infections of the eye and genital tract, in: Nongonococcal Urethritis and Related Infections (D. Hobson and K. K. Holmes, eds.), pp. 186–198, American Society of Microbiology, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Dawson, C., Therapy of diseases caused by Chlamydia organisms: Int.Ophthalmol. Clin. 13:93–101 (1972).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Dawson, C. R., Hanna, L., and Jawetz, E., Controlled treatment trials of trachoma in American Indian children, Lancet 2:961–963 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Dawson, C. R., Jones, B. R., and Tarizzo, M. L., Trachoma control: Progammes for the prevention of blindness, Presented at the National Society for Prevention of Blindness, Committee on Ophthalmia Neonatorum, San Francisco, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Gordon, F. B., Harper, I. A., Guan, A. L., Treharne, J. D., Dwyer, R. St. C., and Garland, J. A.: Detection of Chlamydial (Bedsonia) in certain infections of man. I. Laboratory procedures: Comparison of yolk sac and cell culture for detection and isolation, J. Infect. Dis. 120:451–462 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Grayston, J. T., and Wang, S., New knowledge of Chlamydiae and the diseases they cause, J. Infect. Dis. 132:87–105 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Grayston, J. T., and Wang, S.-P., The potential for vaccine against infection of the genital tract with Chlamydia trachomatis, J. Am. Vener. Dis. Assoc. 5:78–78 (1978).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Halberstaedter, L., and Von Prowazek, S., Uber Zelleinschliesse parasitarer Natur beim Trachom, Arb. Keis. Gesundheitsant. 26:44–47 (1907).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Hammerschlag, M. R., Chandler, J. W., Alexander, E. R., English, M., Chiang, W.-T., Koutsky, L., Eschenbach, D. A., and Smith, J. Ir., Erythromycin ointment for ocular prophylaxis of neonatal chlamydial infection, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 244:2291–2293 (1980) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Hobson, D., Johnson, F. W. A., Rees, E., and Tait, A., Simplified method for diagnosis of genital and ocular infections with Chlamydia, Lancet 2:555–557 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Holmes, K. K., Berger, R. E., and Alexander, E. R., Acute epididymitis: Etiology and therapy, Arch. androl. 3:309–316 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19a.
    Holmes K. K., Handsfield, H. H., Wang, S. P., Wentworth, P. B., Turck, M., Anderson, J. B., and Alexander, E. Ie., Etiology of nongonococcal Urethritis, N. Engl. Med. 292:1199–1206 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Kousa, M., Saikku, P., Richmond, S., and Lassus, A., Frequent association of chlamydial infection with Reiter’s syndrome, Sex. Transmit. Dis. 5:57–61 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 21.
    Meyer, K. F., The host spectrum of psittacosislymphogranuloma venereum (Pl) agents, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63:1225–1246 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    Hunter, J. S., A Treatise on the Venereal Disease, London, 1786.Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    Jones, B. R., Prevention of blindness from trachoma, Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U.K. 95:16–33 (1974).Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Jones, B. R., Collier, L. H., and Smith, C. H., Isolation of a virus from inclusion blennorrhea, Lancet 1:902–905 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 25.
    Julianelle, L. A., The Etiology of Trachoma, The Commonwealth Fund, New York, 1938.Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    Juergensen, T., Handbuch der Speziellen Pathologie und Therapie, Apparate 2:3, Handbuch der Krankheiten des Respirations, Vogel, Leipzeig, 1874.Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    Keat, A. C., Thomas, B. J., Taylor-Robinson, D., Pegrum, G. D., Maini, R. N., and Scott, J. T., Evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually acquired reactive arthritis, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 39:431–437 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Lindner, K., Zur Trachomforschung, Z. Augenheilkd. 22:547–549 (1909).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Mardh, P.-H., An overview of infectious agents of salpingitis, their biology and recent advances in methods of detection, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:933–951 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 30.
    Meyer, K. F., Eddie, B., and Schachter, J., Psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum agents, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Infections, 4th ed. (E. H. Lennette and N. J. Schmidt, eds.), pp. 869–903, American Public Health Association, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  33. 30a.
    Mordhorst, C. H., Wang, S. P., Grayston, J. J., Childhood trachoma in a nonendemic area, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 239:1765–71 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    Moulder, J. W., The relation of the psittacosis group (Chlamydiae) to bacteria and viruses, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 20:107–130 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.
    Nichols, R. I., Bobb, A. A., Haddad, A., and Mccomb, D. E., Immunofluorescent studies of the microbiologic epidemiology of trachoma in Saudi Arabia, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63:1372–1408 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 33.
    Nicolle, C., Cuenod, A., and Blaisot, L., Etude experimentalle du trachome, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 3:185–188 (1911).Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    Richmond, S., Fluorescent antibody studies in chlamydial infections, J.Clin. Microbiol. 1:345–352 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    Ripa, K. T., and Mardh, P.-A., Cultivation of Chla-mydia trachomatis in cyclohexamide-treated McCoy cells, J.Clin. Microbiol. 6:328–330 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Schachter, J., and Dawson, C. R., Comparative efficacy of various diagnostic methods for chlamydial infection, in: Nongonococcal lrethritis and Related Infections (D. Hobson and K. K. Holmes, eds.), pp. 337–341, American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1977.Google Scholar
  40. 36a.
    Schachter, J., and Dawson, C. R., Human Chlamydial Infections, p. 218, P.S.G., Littleton, Massachusetts, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. 37.
    Schachter, J., Hanna, L., Hill, E. C., Massad, S., Sheppard, C. W., Conte, J. E., Jr., Cohen, S. N., and Meyer, K. F., Are chlamydial infections the most prevalent venereal disease?, J.Am. Med. Assoc. 231:1252–1255 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 38.
    Schachter, J., Smith, D. E., Dawson, C. R., anderson, W. R., Deller, J. J., Jr., Hoke A. W., Smartt, W. H., and Meyer, K. F., Lymphogranuloma venereum. I. Comparison of Frei test, complement fixation test, and isolation of the agent, J. Infect. Dis. 120:372–375 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 39.
    Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistical Letter, Centers for Disease Control, Issue 129, 1979.Google Scholar
  44. 40.
    Sompolinsky, D., and Richmond, S., Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in McCoy cells treated with cytochalasin B., Appl. Microbiol. 28:912–914 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 41.
    Stamm, W. E., Wager, K. F., Amsel, R., Alexander, E. R., Turck, M., Counts, G. W., and Holmes, K. K., Causes of the acute urethral syndrome in women, N. Engl. J. Med. 303:409–415 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 42.
    Tack, K. J., Rasp, F. L., Hanto, D., Peterson, P. K., O’leary, M., Simmons, R. L., and Sabath, L. D., Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from the lower respiratory tract of adults, Lancet 3:116 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 43.
    Tait, I. A., Rees, E., Hobson, D., Byng, R. E., and Tweedie, C. K., Chlamydial infection of the cervix in contacts of men with nongonococcal urethritis, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 56:37–41 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 44.
    T’ang, F. F., Chang, H. L., Huang, Y. T., and Wang, K. C., Trachoma virus in chick embryo, Natl. Med. J. China 43:81–86 (1957).Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    Thygeson, P., Trachoma virus: Historical background and review of isolates, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 98:6–13 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 46.
    Thygeson, P., and Stone, W., Jr., The epidemiology of inclusion conjunctivitis, Arch. Ophthalmol. 27:91–122 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 47.
    Wager, G. P., Martin, D. H., Koutsky, L., Eschenbach, D. A., Daling, J. R., Chiang, W. T., Alexander, E. R., and Holmes, K. K., Puerperal infectious morbidity: Relationship to route of delivery and to antepartum Chlamydia trachomatis infections, Am. J. Obstet Gynecol. 138:1028–1033 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 48.
    Wang, S.-P., Eschenbach, D. A., Holmes, K. K., Wager, G., and Grayston, J. T., Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138:1034–1035 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 49.
    Wang, S.-P., and Grayston, J. T., Immunologic relationship between genital Tric, lymphogranuloma venereum, and related organisms in a new microtiter indirect immunofluorescence test, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70:367–374 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 50.
    Wang, S.-P., Grayston, J. T., Alexander, E. R., and Holmes, K. K., A simplified microimmunofluorescence test with trachoma lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis) antigens for use as a screening test for antibody, J.Clin. Microbiol. 1:250–255 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 51.
    Wang, S.-P., Kuo, C. C., and Grayston, J. T., A simplified method for immunological typing of trachoma-inclusion conjunctivitis-lymphogranuloma venereum organisms, Infect. Immunol. 7:356–360 (1973).Google Scholar
  56. 52.
    Wentworth, B. B., and Alexander, E. R., Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis by use of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine-treated cells, Appl. Microbiol. 27:912–916 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 53.
    World Health Organization Report, Fourth W.H.O. Scientific Group on Trachoma Research, No. 330, Geneva, 1966.Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    World Health Organization, Guide to Trachoma Control, Geneva, 1981.Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    Yoneda, C., Dawson, C. R., Daghfous, T., Hoshiwara, I., Jones, P., Messadi, M., and Schachter, J., Cytology as a guide to the presence of chlamydial inclusions in Giemsa-stained conjunctival smears in severe endemic trachoma, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 59:116–124 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Becker, Y., Monographs in Virology, Vol. 7, The Agent of Trachoma, (J. L. Melnick, ed.), S. Karger, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Schachter, J., and Caldwell, H. D., Chlamydiae, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 34:285–309 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Schachter, J., and Dawson, C. R., Human Chlamydial Infections, P.S.G., Littleton, Massachusetts, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. Schachter, J., and Grossman, M., Chlamydial infections I, Annu. Rev. Med. 32:45–61 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Russell Alexander
    • 1
  • H. Robert Harrison
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Pediatric Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Arizona Health Sciences CenterTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations