• Richard B. Hornick


Tularemia is a rare infectious disease caused by a small pleomorphic, gram-negative rod, Francisella tularensis. Patients who acquire the disease have symptoms and signs that relate to the portals of entry of the bacteria: oculoglandular, ulceroglandular, pneumonic, and typhoidal. This infectious disease has been thoroughly studied through induced infections in volunteers; hence, a considerable body of data has been accumulated in a quantitative fashion about the pathogenicity of tularemia bacilli in humans. Man appears to be one of the most susceptible mammalian hosts studied: fewer than 50 organisms can cause disease whether administered intradermally or by the respiratory route.(42) The usual sources of infections are animals, especially cottontail rabbits, voles, and muskrats. Humans acquire the disease by direct contact or by bites of the ticks, mosquitos, deerflies, and other insects that infest such animals.


Skin Test Francisella Tularensis puERTO RICO Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Cutaneous Anthrax 
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Suggested Reading

  1. Boyce, J. M., Recent trends in the epidemiology of tularemia in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 131:197–199 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard B. Hornick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA

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