Leptospirosis

  • Donald O. Lyman
  • Richard J. Jackson

Abstract

Leptospirosis is no longer considered merely an occupational disease among workers in wet environments contaminated with rat urine. Many wild and domesticated animals harbor the organism and can pass it on to humans in urban, suburban, and rural settings. The disease is generally easy to diagnose once suspected, but the value of specific antibiotic therapy is questionable. Disease prevention is generally a matter of “common sense” once the problem is identified and appreciated.

Keywords

Kawasaki Disease Acalculous Cholecystitis Acute Febrile Illness Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Annual Summary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alston, J. M., and Brown, H. C., The prevalence of Weil’s disease in certain occupations, Br. Med. J. 2:339–340 (1935).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alston, J. M., and Broom, J. C., Leptospirosis in Man and Animals, Edinburgh, Livingstone, 1958.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Babudieri, B., Animal reservoirs of leptospires, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 70:393 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Babudieri, B., Addamiano, L., Bussinello, E., Giusti, E., and Salvi, A., Probl. Sess. Ser. Polish Acad. Sci. 19:88–92 (1960); Bull. Hya. 37:740 (1962) (abstract).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker, J. A., and Little, R. B., Leptospirosis in cattle, J. Exp. Med. 88:295–308 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barkin, R. M., and Glosser, J. W., Leptospirosis-an epidemic in children, Am. J. Epidemiol. 98:184–191 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benenson, A. S. (ed.), Control of Communicable Diseases in Man, 12th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1975.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berman, S. J., Tsai, C. C., Holmes, K., Fresh, J. W., and Watten, R. H., Sporadic anicteric leptospirosis in South Vietnam: A study in 150 patients, Ann. Intern. Med. 79:167–173 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bigler, W. J., Collins, T. E., Nichols, J. B., Galton, M. M., and Prather, E. C., Trends of sporadic leptospirosis in Florida, Public Health Rep. 85(3):225–232 (1970) .PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Broom, J. C., Leptospirosis in England and Wales, Br. Med. J. 2:689–697 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burgdorfer, W., The possible role of ticks as vectors of leptospirae. I. Transmission of Leptospira pomona by the Argasid tick, Ornithodoros turicata, and the persistence of this organism in its tissues, Exp. Parasitol. 5:571–579 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campbell, A. M. G., Macrae, I., Manderson, W. G., Sumner, K. C., and Broom, J. C., Canicola fever in Bristol: Clinical, bacteriological, and epidemiological notes on six human cases, Br. Med. J. 1:336–340 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davidson, L. S. P., Campbell, R. M., Rae, H. J., and Smith, J., Weil’s disease (leptospirosis): A clinical and bacteriological study of nineteen cases occurring chiefly among fish workers, Br. Med. J. 2:1137–1143 (1934).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centers for Disease Control, Leptospirosis Surveillance, Annual Summary 1969 (issued June 1970).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Centers for Disease Control, Leptospirosis Surveillance, Annual Summary 1973 (issued November 1974).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Centers for Disease Control, Leptospirosis Surveillance, Annual Summary 1975 (issued July 1976).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Centers for Disease Control, Leptospirosis Surveillance, Annual Summary 1976 (issued April 1978).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Davidson, L. S. P., and Smith, J., Weil’s disease in fish workers: A clinical, chemical, and bacteriological study of forty cases, Q. J. Med. 5:263 (1936).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Davidson, L. S. P., and Smith, J., Weil’s disease in the northeast of Scotland: An account of 104 cases, Br. Med. J. 2:753–757 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diesch, S. L., Mcculloch, W. F., Braun, J. L., and Ellinghausen, H. C., Leptospires isolated from frog kidneys, Nature (London) 209:939–940 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Edwards, G. A., and Domm, B. M., Human leptospirosis, Medicine (Baltimore), 39:117–156 (1960).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Emanuel, M. L., Mackerras, I. M., and Smith, D. J. W., The epidemiology of leptospirosis in North Queensland. I. General survey of animal hosts, J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 62:451–484 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Faine, S., Reticuloendothelial phagocytosis of virulent leptospires, Am. J. Vet. Res. 25:830–835 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fairley, N. H., Weil’s disease among sewer workers in London, Br. Med. J. 2:10–14 (1934).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Feigin, R. D., and Anderson, D. C., Human leptospirosis, Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 5(4):413–467 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Feigin, R. D., Lobes, L. A., Jr., anderson, D., and Pickering, L., Human leptospirosis from immunized dogs, Ann. Intern. Med. 79:777–785 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferris, D. H., Rhoades, H. E., Hanson, L. E., Galton, M., and Mansfield, M. E., Research into the nidality of Leptospira ballum in campestral hosts including the hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platyrhinus), Cornell Vet. 51:405–419 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gillespie, R. W., and Ryno, J., Epidemiology of leptospirosis, Am. J. Public Health 53:950–955 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Glotzer, S., Weil’s disease: Report of a case in a fish worker, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 110:2143 (1938) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gochenour, W. S., Smadel, J. E., Jackson, E. B., Evan, L. B., and Yager, R. H., Leptospiral etiology of Fort Bragg fever, Public Health Rep. 67:811–813 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goley, A. F., Alexander, A. D., Thiel, J. F., and Chappell, V. E., A case of human infection with Leptospira mini georgia, Public Health Rep. 75:922–924 (1960).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hall, H. E., Hightower, J. A., Rivera, R. D., Byrne, R. J., Smadel, J. C., and Woodward, T. E., Evaluation of antibiotic therapy in human leptospirosis, Ann. Intern. Med. 35:981–998 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harrington, R., Jr., Leptospiral antibodies in serum from cattle, swine, horses, deer, sheep and goats, 1973 and 1974, Am. J. Vet. Res. 36(9):1367–1370 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Havens, W. P., Bucher, C. J., and Reimann, H. A., Leptospirosis: A public health hazard-Report of small outbreak of Weil’s disease in bathers, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 116:289–291 (1941) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heath, C. W., Alexander, A. D., and Galton, M. M. Leptospirosis in the United States; Analysis of 483 cases in man, 1949–1961, N. Engl. J. Med. 273:857–864, 915–922 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Humphrey, T., Sanders, S., and Stadius, M., Leptospirosis mimicking Mlns (letter to the editor), J. Pediatr. 91:853 (1977).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    IDo, Y., Hoki, R., Ito, H., and Wani, H., The rat as a carrier of Spirochaeta icterohaemorrhagiae, the causative agent of Weil’s disease (spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica), J. Exp. Med. 26:341–353 (1917f).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Inada, R., Ido, Y., Hoki, R., Kaneko, R., and Ito, H., Etiology, mode of infection, and specific therapy of Weil’s disease (spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica), J. Exp. Med. 23:377–402 (1916) .PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jacobs, R., Leptospirosis-Medical Staff Conference, University of California, San Francisco, West. J. Med. 130:440–450 (1980) .Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Johnson, D. W., The Australian leptospiroses, Med. J. Aust. 2:724 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnson, R. C., and Rogers, P., 5-Fluorouracil as a selective agent for growth of leptospirae, J. Bacteriol. 87:422–426 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jungherr, E., Observations on canine leptospirosis in Connecticut, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 91:661–673 (1937).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jungherr, E., Bovine leptospirosis, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 105:276–281 (1944) .Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kaufmann, A. F., Epidemiologic trends of leptospirosis in the United States, 1965–1974, in: The Biology of Parasitic Spirochetes (R. C. Johnson, ed.), pp. 177–189, 209–223, Academic Press, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kocen, R. S., Leptospirosis: A comparison of symptomatic and pencillin therapy, Br. Med. J. 1:1181–1183 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mccrumb, F. R., Jr., Stockard, J. L., Robinson, C. R., Turner, L. H., Levis, D. G., Maisey, C. W., Kelleher, M. F., Gleiser, C. A., and Smadel, J. E., Leptospirosis in Malaya. I. Sporadic cases among military and civilian personnel, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 6:238–256 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Maestrone, C., and Benjaminson, M. A., Leptospira infection in the goldfish (Carassius auratus), Nature (London), 195:719–720 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Martone, W. J., and Kaufman, A. F., Leptospirosis in humans in the United States, 1974–1978, J. Infect. Dis., 140:1020–1022 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Meyer, K. F., Eddie, B., and Anderson-Stewart, B., Canine urine and human leptospirosis in California, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 38:17–19 (1938).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Meyer, K. F., Stewart-Aderson, B., and Eddie, B., Canine leptospirosis in the United States, . J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 95:710–729 (1939).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Minkenhof, J. E., Leptospirosis canicolaris, Lancet 255:8–10 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Molner, J. G., Meyer, K. F., and Raskin, H. A., Leptospiral infections: Survey, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 136:814–819 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nelson, K. E., Ager, E. A., Glaton, M. M., Gillespie, R. W. H., and Sulzer, C. R., an outbreak of leptospirosis in Washington State, Am. J. Epidemiol. 98(5):336–347 (1973).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nervig, R. M., and Ellinghausen, H. C., Jr., Viability of Leptospira interrogans serotype grippotyphosa in swine urine and blood, Cornell Vet. 68:70–77 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nogucxi, H., Spirochaeta icterohaemorrhagiae in American wild rats and its relation to Japanese and European strains, J. Exp. Med. 25:755–763 (1917).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Noguchi, H., The survival of Leptospira (Spirochaeta)icterohaemorrhagiae in nature: Observations concerning microchemical reactions and intermediary hosts, J. Exp. Med. 27(5):609–625 (1918).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Okazaki, W., and Ringen, L. M., Some effects of various environmental conditions on the survival of Leptospira pomona, Am. J. Vet. Res. 18(66):219–223 (1957).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pertzelan, A., and Prazanski, W., Leptospira canicola infection: Report of 81 cases and review of the literature, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 12:75 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reinhard, K. R., Parasitological review: Newer knowl- edge of leptospirosis in the United States, Exp. Parasitol. 2:87–115 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schaeffer, M., Leptospiral meningitis: Investigation of waterborne epidemic due to L. pomona, J. Clin. Invest. 30:670 (1951).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sellards, A. W., The interpretation of (?Spirochaeta) interrogans of Stimson (1907) in the light of subsequent developments, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:545–548 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sharp, W. C., Weil’s disease in the Scottish coal mines, Trans. Assoc. Ind. Med. Off. 2:155 (1953).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Smith, D. J. W., and Self, H. R. M., Observations on the survival of Leptospira australis A in soil and water, J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 53:436–444 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Smith, J., Weil’s disease in the northeast of Scotland, Br. J. Ind. Med. 6:213 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stavrtsky, A. B., Studies on pathogenesis of leptospirosis, J. Infect. Dis. 76:179 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stimson, A. M., Note on organism found in yellowfever tissue, Public Health Rep. 22:541–545 (1907).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stoenner, H. G., Treatment and control of leptospirosis, in: The Biology of Parasitic Spirochetes (R. C. Johnson, ed.), pp. 375–388, Academic Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stoenner, H. G., and Maclean, D., Leptospirosis (ballum) contracted from Swiss albino mice, Arch. Intern . Med. 101:606–610 (1958) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stokes, A., and Ryle, J. A., A note on Weil’s disease (spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica) as it has occurred in the army in Flanders, Br. Med. J. 2:413 (1916).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stokes, A., Ryle, J. A., and Ttler, W. H., Weil’s disease (spirochaetosis ictero-haemorrhagica) in the British Army in Flanders, Lancet 1:142–153 (1917).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stuart, R. D., Canine leptospirosis in Glasgow, Vet. Rec. 58:131 (1946).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sulzer, C. R., and Jones, W. L., Leptospirosis: Methods in laboratory diagnosis, Centers for Disease Control, Usdhew, Publ. No. (Cdc) 78–8275, 1978.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tabel, H., and Karstad, L., The renal carrier state of experimental Leptospira pomona infections in skunks (Mephitis mephitis), Am. J. Epidemiol., 85:9–16 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tonge, J. L., and Smith, D. J., Leptospirosis acquired from soil, Med. J. Aust. 48 (2):711 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Turner, L. H., Leptospirosis I, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61(6):842–855 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Turner, L. H., Leptospirosis. II. Serology, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62:880–899 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Turner, L. H., Leptospirosis. III. Maintenance, isolation, and demonstration of leptospires, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:623–646 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Van Der Hoeden, J., Epizootiology of leptospirosis, Adv. Vet. Sci. 4:277–399 (1958).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Van Der Hoeden, J., Leptospiral antibodies in cold blooded animals, Ann. Soc. Belge Med. Trop. 46:171–175 (1966) .Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Van Der Hoeden, J., Shenberg, E., and Torten, M., The epidemiological complexity of Leptospira canicola infection of man and animals in Israel, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 3:880 (1967) .PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Van Thiel, P. H., The Leptospiroses, Leiden, Universitaire Pers. Leiden, 1948, 231 pp.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Verma, B. B., Biberstein, E. L., and Meyer, M. E., Serologic survey of leptospiral antibodies in horses in California, Am. J. Vet. Res. 38 (9):1443–1444 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wadsworth, A., Langworthy, V. H., Stewart, F. C., Moore, A. C., and Coleman, M., Infectious jaundice occurring in New York State, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 78:1120 (1922) .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Walch-Sordgrager, B., Leptospirosis, Bull. Health Organ. League of Nations 8:143–386 (1939).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ward, T. G., and Turner, T. B., Study of certain epidemiological features of leptospiral jaundice in Baltimore, Am. J. Hyg. 35:122–133 (1942).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weil, A., Uber eine eigentümliche, mit Milztumor, Ikterus und Nephritis einhergehende, akute Infections-Krankheit, Dtsch. Arch. Klin. Med. 39:209–232 (1886) .Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Welcher, A., Die Laboratoriumsinfektionen mit Weilscher Krankheit, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. 141:400 (1938); quoted by Alston and Broom.(2) Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wong, M. L., Kaplan, S., Dunkle, L. M., Stechenberg, B. W., and Feigin, R. D., Leptospirosis, a childhood disease, J. Pediatr. 90:532–537 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Feigin, R. D., and Anderson, D. C., Human leptospirosis, Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 5 (4):413–467 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Heath, C. W., Alexander, A. D., and Galton, M. M., Leptospirosis in the United States: Analysis of 483 cases in man, 1949–1961, N. Engl. J. Med. 273:857–864, 915–922 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jacobs, R., Leptospirosis-Medical Staff Conference, University of California, San Francisco, West. J. Med. 130:440–450 (1980) .Google Scholar
  4. Stoenner, H. G., Treatment and control of leptospirosis, in: The Biology of Parasitic Spirochetes (R. C. Johnson, ed.), pp. 375–388, Academic Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. Sulzer, C. R., and Jones, W. L., Leptospirosis: Methods in laboratory diagnosis, Centers for Disease Control, Usdhew, Pub. No. (Cdc) 78–8275, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. Turner, L. H., Leptospirosis I, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61(6):842–855 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Turner, L. H., Leptospirosis. II. Serology, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62:880–899 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Turner, L. H., Leptospirosis. III. Maintenance, isolation, and demonstration of leptospires, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:623–646 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald O. Lyman
    • 1
  • Richard J. Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.California Department of Health ServicesSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations