Laboratory Techniques for X-ray Reflection Topography

  • R. W. Armstrong
Part of the Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 63)


When a real crystal is set at the Bragg condition, the surface layer reflects X-rays non-uniformly, to an extent which depends on the deviation from flatness of the crystal surface and on the microstructural features of the sub-surface crystal volume. To make use of this occurrence, a number of experimental techniques have been developed for obtaining topographic images of the X-ray intensity reflected over any crystal surface area and for tracing local variations in the reflected intensity on a point by point basis back to the combined surface features and internal microstructure of the material. The full range of wave length conditions accessible in the laboratory are covered by the techniques involving, say, characteristic K radiation (the Berg [1] — Barrett [2] technique, penetrating polychromatic radiation)the Schultz [3] technique), or, most sensitively, crystal monochromated radiation, say, as utilized by Bonse [4].


Dislocation Loop Subgrain Boundary Twist Section Lithium Fluoride Individual Dislocation 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

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  • R. W. Armstrong

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