The Search for Biological Models to Investigate Human Carcinogenic Risks: Human Pathology and Experimental Carcinogenesis Correlations at the Organ, Tissue, and Cellular Level, In Vivo and In Vitro

  • Umberto Saffiotti

Abstract

The use of human cells for the assessment of risks from physical and chemical agents — the subject of the present course — is rapidly evolving in the field of carcinogenesis. Its methodology is emerging from basic advances in experimental pathology, cell biology and biochemistry. The use of human tissues and cells for the study and evaluation of human carcinogenesis is becoming a highly productive area of cancer research, although much work remains to be done toward establishing its precise role in the complex process of risk assessment. Considerable progress has been made in establishing appropriate methods and models for the study of the pathogenesis of human cancers. Partiular attention was given to models for epithelial cancers, which constitute the vast majority of human neoplasms. A variety of closely related biological systems was developed to link together the pathology observed in whole human organisms and in the corresponding whole animal models for the chemical induction of the same types of tumors, derived from the same organs and tissues. When appropriate chemically induced organ-level animal models were established, the subsequent development was devoted to organ culture models for the in vitro maintenance of the tissues of origin of the main types of tumors and the study of their response to carcinogens. When the organ culture models were established from experimental animal tissues, the next step was aimed at. developing their human counterparts, using culture methods for the corresponding human tissues of origin. Finally, from these organ culture systems — or in parallel with them — the next stage of model development was that of systems for the culture of isolated cells from the target epithelia, both from the experimental animals and from their human counterpart. Once all these were established, linking together animal and human pathology at the organ, tissue and cellular levels, it became possible to study mechanisms of induction of neoplastic transformation in progressively linked biological systems and particularly in the isolated target cells, directly comparing animal and human cellular responses.

Keywords

Neoplastic Transformation Biological Model Ferric Oxide Respiratory Epithelium Human Pathology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umberto Saffiotti
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Pathology Division of Cancer Cause and PreventionNational Cancer InstituteFrederickUSA

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