Advertisement

What do We Mean by the Expression: Risk-Assessment?

  • J. D. Jansen

Abstract

English is a wonderful scientific language because it is easy to coin a word or expression which describes clearly for all fellow researchers the goal of a new field of research, in other words that what the researchers would clearly like to know. As soon as we do know, the picturesque word or expression is changed into a scientifically accurate pseudo-greco-roman expression which is precisely defined, explained in the textbooks and from then onwards of no further interest to the creative researcher who is interested in discovering the unknown. However, for exactly the same reason English is also a hazardous language when different branches of science have to cooperate. This is because the specialist in one branch is apt to assume, consciously or subconsciously, that the expressions used in another branch describe achievements instead of goals for understanding.

Keywords

Avoidable Risk Fellow Researcher Aflatoxin Exposure Germ Cell Mutation Carcinogenic Hazard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. Okrent, Comment on Societal Risk, Science, 208: 372–375 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. B. Newcombe, Quantitative assessment of induced genetic ill-health in humans as a model for assessing genetic risks from chemicals, in: Bora, ed.,Proc. Int. Symposium on Chemical Muta-genesis, Human Population Monitoring and Genetic Risk Assessment, Elsevier/North Holland Biochemical Press (in press).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. B. Newcombe, Problems of assessing risk versus mutations, Genetics 92 (May suppl.) 5199–5201 (1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. V. Neel, H. Mohrenweiser, C. Satoh, and H. B. Hamilton, A consideration of two biochemical approaches to monitoring human populations for a change in germ cell mutation rates, in: Berg, ed., Genetic damage in man caused by environmental agents, Academic Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. V. Neel, C. Satoh, H. B. Hamilton, M. Otake, K. Goriki, T. Kageoka, M. Fujita, S. Neriishi, and T. Asakawa, Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77: 4221–4225 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Auerbach, The effects of six years of mutagen testing on our attitude to the problems posed by it, Mutation Res., 33: 3–10 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Cuyler-Hammond and L., Garfinkel, Tobacco Epidemiology - A simulated animal experiment, in: Coulston, Shubik, eds., Human Epidemiology and animal laboratory correlations in chemical carcinogenesis, Ablex Publ.Comp., Norwood, New Jersey, USA (1980).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. J. Kensler, S. P. Battista, and P. S. Thayer, Animal models for the study of tobacco carcinogenesis, in: Coulston, Shubik, eds., Human Epidemiology and animal laboratory correlations in chemical carcinogenesis, Ablex Publ.Comp., Norwood, New Jersey, USA (1980).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Maltoni and G. Lefemine, Carcinogenicity bio-assays of vinyl-chloride, I. Research plans and early results, Environm. Res., 7: 187–405 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. L. Creech, Jr., and M. N. Johnson, Angiosarcoma of liver in the manufactureof polyvinylchloride, J. Occup. Med., 16: 150–151 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Makk, F. Delmore, J. L. Creech, L. L. Ogden, E. H. Fadell, C. L. Sangster, J. Clanton, M. N. Johnson, and W. H. Christopherson, Clinical and morphological effects of hepatic angiosarcoma in vinylchloride workers, Cancer, 37: 149–163 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. J. Gehring, P. C. Watanabe, and C. N. Park, Resolution of Dose-Response Toxicity Data for Chemicals Requiring Metabolic Activation, e.g., vinylchloride, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 44: 581–591 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. J. Gehring, P. G. Watanabe, and C. H. Park, Risk of angiosarcoma in workers exposed to vinylchloride as predicted from studies in rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 49: 15–21 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Butcher, J. G. Filser, H. Peter, and H. M. Bolt, Pharmacokinetics of vinylchloride in the Rhesus monkey, Toxicol. Letters, 6: 33–36 (1980).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. N. Magee, R. Montesano, and R. Preusmann, N-Nitroso compounds and related carcinogens, in: Searle, ed., Chemical Carcinogens, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C. (1976).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. N. Wogan, S. Paglialunga, and P. M. Newberne, Carcinogenic effects of low dietary levels of aflatoxin B1 in rats, Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 12: 681–685 (1974).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. A. Linsell and F. G. Peers, Field studies on liver cell cancer, in: Hiatt, Watson, and Winsten, eds., Origins of Human Cancer, Cold Spring Harbor Lab. (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. N. Wogan, Aflatoxin carcinogenesis, in: Busch, ed., Methods in cancer research, Academic Press, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. M. Newberne, Carcinogenicity of aflatoxin contaminated peanut meals, in: Wogan, ed., Mycotoxins in foodstuffs, M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts (1965).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. P. H. Hsieh, J. T. Wong, Z. A. Wong, C. Michas, and B. H. Reubner, Hepatic Transformation of aflatoxin and its carcinogenicity, in: Hiatt, Watson, and Winsten, eds., Origins of Human Cancer, Cold Spring Harbor Lab. (1977).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. L. Gross and P. M. Newberne, Naturally occurring toxic substances in food, Clin. Pharm. Ther., 22: 680–697 (1977).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. I. Lutwick, Relation between aflatoxin, hepatitis-B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma, The Lancet, 755–757 (1979).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anon., Hepatitis-B vaccine passes first major test, Science, 210: 760–762 (1980).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Cairns, The origin of human cancers, Nature, 289: 353–357 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. D. Jansen, The predictive value of tests for carcinogenic and mutagenic activity, in: Deichmann, ed., Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Elsevier/North Holland, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. D. Jansen, J. Clemmesen, and K. Sundaram, Isoniazid–an attempt at retrospective prediction, ICPEMC publication No. 4, Mutation Res., 76: 85–112 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. R. Howe, J. Lindsay, E. Coppock, and A. B. Miller, Isoniazid exposure in relation to cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of tuberculosis patients, Int. J. Epidemiol., 8: 305–312 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Clemmesen and S. Hjalgrim-Jensen, Epidemiological studies of medically used drugs, Arch. Toxicol. Suppl., 3: 19–25 (1980).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Clemmesen and S. Hjalgrim-Jansen, Does Phenobarbital cause intracranial tumors? A follow-up through 35 years, Ecotoxicol. and Environm. Safety, 5: 255–260 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. B. Clayson, Carcinogens and carcinogenesis enhancers, Mutation Res., in press (1981).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. H. Weisburger, On the etiology of gastro-intestinal tract cancers with emphasis on dietary factors, in: Emmelot, Kriek, eds., Environm. Carcinogenesis, Elsevier/North Holland Biochemical Press, Amsterdam (1979).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Kroes, Animal Data, interpretation and consequences, in: Emmelot, Kriek, eds., Environm. Carcinogenesis, Elsevier/North Holland Biochemical Press, Amsterdam (1979).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Int. Agency for Research on Cancer, Long-term and Short-term screening assays for carcinogenes: a critical appraisal, IARC Monographs, Lyon, Suppl., 2: 72–73 (1980).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. P. Vessey, Contraceptive Methods: risks and benefits, Brit. Med. J., Sept., 721–722 (1978).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. T. Mays, Sex Steroids and Hepatic Growth, in: Coulston, Shubik, eds., Human Epidemiology and Animal Laboratory Correlations in Chemical Carcinogenesis, Ablex Publishing Comp., Norwood, New Jersey, USA (1980).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D. Hoogendoorn, Aanzienlijk dalend aantal kinderen met mongolisme, Ned. T. Geneesk. (summary in English), 112: 1119–1120 (1978).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. B. Hook, Human teratogenic and mutagenic markers in monitoring about point sources of pollution, Envirnonm. Res., 25: 178–203 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Doll and R. Peto, Avoidable risks of cancer in the US, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 66: 1195–1308 (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Jansen
    • 1
  1. 1.Group ToxicologySIRM B.V.The HagueNetherlands

Personalised recommendations