Interactions Between Organisms and Their Environment

  • Edward K. Yeargers
  • Ronald W. Shonkwiler
  • James V. Herod


This chapter is a discussion of the factors that control the growth of populations of organisms.


Population Growth Stationary Point Phase Portrait Tree Ring Parental Investment 
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References and Suggested Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Environmental resistance: William T. Keeton and James L. Gould, Biological Science, 5th. ed., W. W. Norton and Company, New York, 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Partitioning of resources: John L. Harper, Population Biology of Plants, Academic Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Population ecology: Richard Brewer, The Science of Ecology, Saunders College Publishing, Ft. Worth, 2nd ed., 1988.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ecology and public issues: Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle—Nature, Man and Technology, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Natural population control: H. N. Southern, J. Zool., Lond. vol. 162. pp. 197– 285, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A doomsday model: David A. Smith; “Human Population Growth: Stability or Explosion,” Mathematics Magazine, vol. 50, no. 4, Sept. 1977, pp. 186–197.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Budworm, balsalm fir, and birds: D. Ludwig, D. D. Jones and C. S. Holling; “Qualitative Analysis of Insect Outbreak Systems: The Spruce Budworm and Forests,” J. Animal Ecology, vol. 47, 1978, pp. 315–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Predator or prey: J. D. Murray, “Predator–Prey Models: Lotka–Volterra Systems,” Section 3.1 in Mathematical Biology, Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Linearization: Steven H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos, with Applications to Physics. Biology; Chemistry; and Engineering, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A matter of wolves: B. E. McLaren, R. O. Peterson, “Wolves, Moose and Tree Rings on Isle Royale,” Science, vol. 266, 1994, pp. 1555–1558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Predator—prey with child care, cannibalism, and other models: J. M. A. Danby, Computing Applications to Differential Equations, Reston Publishing Company, Inc., Reston, VA, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward K. Yeargers
    • 1
  • Ronald W. Shonkwiler
    • 2
  • James V. Herod
    • 2
  1. 1.School of BiologyGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.School of MathematicsGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

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