Kinins—II pp 439-450 | Cite as

Localization of Glandular Kallikreins and Secretion of Kallikrein from the Major Salivary Glands of the Rat

  • Torill B. Ørstavik
  • K. Nustad
  • K. M. Gautvik
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB)


Glandular kallikreins (E.C. are found in major exocrine glands as well as in the kidney. These kinin-forming enzymes are also present in the glandular secretions and preurine, and, they are believed to be synthesized in the respective organs (Nustad et al., 1975). The physiological function of kallikrein in exocrine glands and the kidney is incompletely understood. However, the cellular localization and secretory pattern of kallikrein may give some indication as to the physiological role of kininogenases in these organs. Moreover, such information is also important for designing experiments to study the physiological function of glandular kallikreins. The cellular localization of kallikrein was therefore investigated by means of a direct immunofluarescence technique in the major salivary glands, the pancreas, the kidney, and the exorbital lacrimal gland of the rat. The secreti kallikrein into saliva from the major salivary glands was investigated after various types of gland activation. Some of these results have been published previously (Ørstavik et al., 1975; Ørstavik et al., 1976; Ørstavik and Gautvik, 1977; Ørstavik and Gleaner, 1978).


Salivary Gland Acinar Cell Parotid Gland Submandibular Gland Zymogen Granule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albano, J., K.D. Bhoola, P.F. Heap, and M.J.C. Lemon, 1976. Stimulus-secretion coupling: role of cyclic AMP, cyclic GM2 and calcium in mediating enzyme (kallikrein) secretion in the submandibular gland. J. Physiol. 258: 631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton, S., E.J. Sanders, M. Schachter and M. Uddin, 1975. Autonomic nerve stimulation, kallikrein content and acinar cell granules of the cat’s submandibular gland. J. Physiol. 251: 363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhoola, K.D., M.J.C. Lemon, and R.W. Matthews, 1977. Immunofluorescent localization of kallikrein in the guinea-pig submandibular gland. J. Physiol. (Land.) 272: 28 P.Google Scholar
  4. Brandtzaeg, P. 1973. Conjugates of immunoglobulin G with different fluorochromes. I. Characterization by anionic-exchange chromatography. Scand. J. Immunol. 2: 273.Google Scholar
  5. Brandtzaeg, P., K.M. Gautvik, K. Nustad, and J.V. Pierce, 1976. Rat submandibular gland kallikreins: purification and cellular localization. Br. J. Pharmacol. 56: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chao, J. and H.S. Margolius, 1978. Identification of kallikrein in toad urinary bladder and skin and its inhibition by amiloride. Clin. Res. 26: 63A.Google Scholar
  7. Chauncey, H.H. and G. Quintarelli, 1961. Localication of acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterases and 3-D-galactosidase in parotid and submaxillary glands of domestic and laboratory animals. Am. J. Anat. 108: 263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ekfors, T.O. and V.K. Hopsu-Havu, 1971. Immunofluorescent localization of trypsin-like esteropeptidases in the mouse sub-mandibular gland. Histochem. J. 3: 415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ekholm, R., T. Zelander, and Y. Edlund, 1962. The ultrastructural organization of the rat exocrine pancreas. II. Centroacinar cells, intercalary and intralobular ducts. J. Ultrastruct. Res, 7: 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fräki J.E., C.T. Jansén, and V.K. Hopsu-Havu, 1970. Human sweat kallikrein. Acta Dermat. (Stockholm) 50: 321Google Scholar
  11. Frey, E.K., H. Kraut, E. Werle, R. Vogel, G. Zickgraf-Fudel and I. Trautschold, 1968. Das Kallikrein-Kinin-System und seine lnhibitoren. Ferdinand Enke Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  12. Gautvik, K.M., M. Kriz, K. Lund-Larsen, and K. Nustad, 1974. Control of kallikrein secretion from salivary glands. In: Secretory mechanisms of exocrine glands. Eds. N. A. Thorn and 0.H. Petersen. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp. 168.Google Scholar
  13. Hojima, Y., B. Maranda, C. Moriwaki, and M. Schachter, 1977. Direct evidence for the localization of kallikrein in the striated ducts of the cat’s submandibular gland by the use of specific antibody. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 263: 793.Google Scholar
  14. Levi-Mantalcini, R. and P.U. Angeletti, 1961. Growth control of the sympathetic system by a specific protein factor. Quart. Rev. Biol. 36: 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nustad, K. and J.V. Pierce, 1974. Purification of rat urinary kallikreins and their specific antibody. Biochem. 13: 2312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nustad, K., J.V. Pierce, and K. Vaaje, 1975. Synthesis of kallikrein by rat kidney slices. Br. J. Pharmacol. 53: 229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ørstavik, T.B., 1978a. An immunohistochemical study of kallikrein in the rat parotid and exorbital lacrimal glands. Arch. oral Biol. In press.Google Scholar
  18. Ørstavik, T.B., 1978b. The distribution and secretion of kallikrein in some exocrine organs of the rat. Acta physiol. Scand. Dec. In press.Google Scholar
  19. Ørstavik, T.B., P. Brandtzaeg, K. Nustad, and K.M. Halvorsen, 1975. Cellular localization of kallikrein in the rat submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Immunofluorescence tracing related to histological characteristics. Acta histochem. 54: 183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ørstavik, T.B. and K.M. Gautvik, 1977. Regulation of salivary kallikrein secretion in the rat submandibular gland. Acta physiol. Scand. 100: 33.Google Scholar
  21. Ørstavik, T.B. and G.G. Glenner, 1978. Localization of kallikrein and its relation to other trypsin-like esterases in the rat pancreas. A comparison with the submandibular gland. Acta physiol. Scand. 103: 384.Google Scholar
  22. Ørstavik, T.B., K. Nustad, and P. Brandtzaeg, 1977. A biochemical and immunohistochemical study of kallikrein in normal and isoproterenol-stimulated rat salivary glands during postnatal development. Archs. oral. Biol. 22: 495.Google Scholar
  23. Ørstavik, T.B., K. Nustad, P. Brandtzaeg, and J.V. Pierce. Cellular origin of urinary kallikreins. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24: 1037.Google Scholar
  24. Proud, D., G. Bailey, K. Nustad, and K.M. Gautvik, 1977. The immunological similarity of rat glandular kallikreins. Biochem. J. 167: 835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Scicli, A.G., R. Candolfi, and 0.A. Carretero, 1978. Site of formation of kinins in the dog nephron. Am. J. Physiol. 234: F36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Simson, J.A.V., J. Chao, and H.S. Margolius, 1978. Cytochemical localization and secretagogue-induced release of kallikrein and nerve growth factor from rodent salivary glands. Anat. Rec. 190: 542.Google Scholar
  27. Strauss, J.S. and A.G. Matolsky, 1973. Skin. In: Histology 3. ed. Eds. R.O. Creep and L. Weiss. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp. 477.Google Scholar
  28. Uddin, M. and D.W. Tyler, 1978. Localization of kallikrein by a direct method. J. Dent. Res. Spec. Issue A, Abstr. nr. 1183.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torill B. Ørstavik
    • 1
  • K. Nustad
    • 3
  • K. M. Gautvik
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Physiol. and Biochem., Dent. Fac.Univ. of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Inst. Physiol., Med. Fac.Univ. of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Dept. of Clin. Chem.The Norwegian Radium Hosp.OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations