Prevention of Deme Formation by the Pinyon Needle Scale: Problems of Specializing in a Dynamic System

  • Neil S. Cobb
  • Thomas G. Whitham


Genetic differentiation within populations has evolutionary consequences for both populations and species, and is important to issues such as local adaptation, speciation, and biodiversity (Wright 1968,1969, 1978; Lewontin 1974; Endler 1977; Brown 1979; Mitter and Futuyma 1979; Bradshaw 1984; Futuyma and Peterson 1985; Waser and Price 1985). Becoming locally adapted may allow widespread generalist species to exploit a variety of resources by forming host races (Thompson 1994); additionally, specialist herbivores may track certain host genotypes by forming biotypes (Gallun et al. 1975; Gould 1983; Service 1984; Parker 1985; Feder et al. 1988; Moran and Whitham 1988). In either case, a species may be able to increase niche breadth as a result of genetic diversity that results from local adaptation (van Valen 1965). It is therefore important to understand what mechanisms promote or prevent deme formation from occurring at different spatial levels of organization.


Host Tree Natal Tree Scale Density Scale Insect Scale Population 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil S. Cobb
    • 1
  • Thomas G. Whitham
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

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