Softons, Softarons and Bisoftarons in Amorphous Solids

  • E. N. Economou
  • K. L. Ngai
  • T. L. Reinecke
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 17)

Abstract

Many amorphous solids as well as other non-crystalline substances exhibit1 an anomalously high specific heat which seems to vary linearly with temperature T at very low T. This implies a finite density of states down to energies comparable to kT, where T is the lowest temperature in these experiments. Anderson et al.2 and Phillips3 have attributed this high density of states to the existence, locally, of another configuration having about the same energy as the ground state. In other words the potential energy of the system as a function of some appropriate local atomic coordinates is assumed to exhibit a double minimum form instead of the single minimum of the crystalline solids. If the potential barrier between the two minima is not too high, tunneling from one minimum to the other is possible, and it can account for the linear specific heat. This picture has been further supported by experiments on thermal conductivity,1 ultrasonic attenuation,4 sound velocity5 and nuclear spin lattice relaxation.6,7 Note that the existence of the double minimum structure is associated with the presence of a soft (≡ easily deformable) chemical arrangement of comparable energy with an alternative local chemical bonding.

Keywords

Valence Band Chalcogenide Glass Amorphous Solid Ultrasonic Attenuation Amorphous Semiconductor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. C. Zeller and R. O. Pohl, Phys. Rev. B4, 2029 (1971);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1a.
    R. B. Stephens Phys. Rev. B8, 2896 (1973) and Thesis, Cornell University, 1974;ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1b.
    M. P. Zaitlin and A. C. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1155 (1974);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 1c.
    J. C. Lasjaumas, D. Thoulouze and F. Pernot, Solid St. Comm. 14, 957 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 2.
    P. W. Anderson, B. I. Halperin and C. M. Varma, Phil. Mag. 25, 1 (1972).ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 3.
    W. A. Phillips, J. Low Temp. Phys. 7, 351 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 4.
    S. Hunklinger, W. Arnold, S. Stein, R. Nava, and K. Dransfeld, Phys. Lett. 42A, 253 (1972);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 4a.
    B. Golding, J. E. Graebner, B. I. Halperin, and R. J. Schutz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 223 (1973);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 4b.
    W. Arnold, S. Hunklinger, S. Stein and K. Dransfeld, J. NonCryst. Solids. 14, 192 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 5.
    L. Pichd, R. Maynard, S. Hunklinger and J. Jäckle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1426 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 6.
    J. Szeftel and H. Alloul, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 667 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 7.
    M. Rubinstein, H. A. Resing, T. L. Reinecke and K. L. Ngai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1444 (1975);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 7a.
    T. L. Reinecke and K. L. Ngai, Phys. Rev. B 12, 3476 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 8.
    E. Finkman, A. P. DeFonzo, and J. Tauc, in “Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors,” edited by J. Stuke and W. Brenig (Taylor and Franci, London, 1974) p. 1275.Google Scholar
  15. 9.
    G. N. Papatheodorou and S. A. Solin, Phys. Rev. issue (1976).Google Scholar
  16. 10.
    J. P. deNeufville chapter in “Optical Properties of Solids - Recent Developments” edited by E. O. Seraphin, North Holland Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. 10a.
    H. Fritzsche, in “Electronic and Structural Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors,” edited by P. G. LeComber and J. Mort (Academic Press, 1973), p. 575.Google Scholar
  18. 11.
    N. F. Mott and E. A. Davis, “Electronic Processes in NonCrystalline Materials” (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1971).Google Scholar
  19. 12.
    See, for example, “Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors” edited by J. Stuke and W. Brenig (Taylor and Francis, London, 1974).Google Scholar
  20. 13.
    M. H. Cohen, H. Fritzsche, and S. R. Ovshinsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1065 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 14.
    D. Emin, in “Electronic and Structural Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors,” edited by P. G. LeComber and J. Mort (Academic Press, 1973), p. 261.Google Scholar
  22. 15.
    P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 953 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 16.
    R. A. Street and N. F. Mott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1293 (1975); N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis and R. A. Street, to be published.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 17.
    R. Chang, Mat. Res. Bull. 2, 145 (1967);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 17a.
    K. Tanaka and M. Kikuchi, in “Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors,” edited by J. Stuke and W. Brenig (Taylor and Francis, London, 1974) p. 439.Google Scholar
  26. 18.
    J. D. Dow, Comments on Solid State Physics 4B, 35 (1972).Google Scholar
  27. 19.
    J. Tauc in “Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors” edited by J. Tauc (Plenum 1974) , p. 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 20.
    S. G. Bishop, U. Strom and P. C. Taylor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 1346 (1975); S. G. Bishop, U. Strom and P. C. Taylor, Solid St. Comm. (to appear).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 21.
    G. F. Koster and J. C. Slater, Phys. Rev. 95, 1167 (1954);ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 21a.
    J. Callaway, J. Math. Phys. 5, 783 (1964).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 22.
    See e.g., D. C. Licciardello and E. N. Economou, Phys. Rev. B11, 3697 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 23.
    H. S. Hunklinger, L. Piché, J. C. Lasjaunias and K. Dransfeld, J. Phys. (London) C8, L423 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 24.
    M. von Schickfus, S. Hunklinger, and L. Piché, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 876 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 25.
    J. D. Dow and D. Redfield, Phys. Rev. B1, 3358 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 26.
    H. Sumi and Y. Toyozawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 31, 342 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. N. Economou
    • 1
  • K. L. Ngai
    • 2
  • T. L. Reinecke
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Naval Research LaboratoryUSA

Personalised recommendations