Integrated Electronics for Acoustic Imaging Arrays

  • James D. Meindl

Abstract

Within the past five years acoustic imaging systems based on the use of arrays of transducer elements rather than a single element have undergone a rapid stage of development. Primary performance objectives of these systems in medical applications include high resolution, large field of view, long range and rapid frame rate. Various approaches to array systems can be classified according to transducer geometry, scanning technique and method of focus. Analysis of the salient electronic device and circuit requirements of these systems indicates well matched circuit arrays of 1) high voltage transmitters, 2) low noise, wide dynamic range preamplifiers and logarithmic compressors, 3) high voltage multiplex switches and 4) electronically variable analog delay lines are needed, with variable delay lines representing perhaps the most acute requirement. Custom silicon monolithic integrated circuits offer a promising means for fulfilling these needs, particularly in the case of charge coupled device (CCD) delay lines. Array imaging systems offer promise of extraordinary future progress.

Keywords

Delay Line Lateral Resolution Array System Acoustic Image Integrate Optic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Section I

  1. [1]
    Acoustical Holography, Vol. 4, G. Wade, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Acoustical Holography, vol. 5, P.S. Green, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Wells, P.N.T., Physical Principles of Ultrasonic Diagnosis, Academic Press, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Meindl, J. D., “Integrated Electronics in Medicine,” ISSCC Digest of Tech. Papers, Feb. 1974, pp. 160–161.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Vilkomerson, D., “Analysis of Various Holographic Imaging Methods for Medical Diagnosis,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 4, op. cit., pp. 201–429.Google Scholar

Section II

  1. [1]
    Wells, P.N.T., Physical Principles of Ultrasonic Diagnosis, Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Born, N., et al., “Multiscan Echocardiography,” Circulation 48:1066–1074, November 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Thurstone, F. L., and von Ramm, O.T., “A New Ultrasound Imaging Technique Employing Two-dimensional Electronic Beam Steering,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 5, op. cit., pp. 249–259.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Maginness, M.G., Plummer, J.D., and Meindl, J. D., “An Acoustic Image Sensor Using a Transmit-Receive Array,” ibid., pp. 619–631.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Kossoff, G., “Display Techniques in Ultrasound Pulse Echo Investigations: A Review,” J. Clinical Ultrasound 2(1):61–71, March 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Section III

  1. [1]
    Wells, P.N.T., Physical Principles of Ultrasonic Diagnosis, Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Ekoline 20 Manual, Smith Kline Corporation, Palo Alto, California.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Wells, P.N.T., “The Receiver in the Pulse-Echo System,” Ultrasonics in Medicine, M. de Vlieger et al., Eds., Excerpta Medica/American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc. New York, 1974, pp. 30–37.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Mussman, H., Dutton, R., and Meindl, J., “A Monolithic Analog Signal Processor for Ultrasonic Imaging Systems,” ISSCC Digest of Tech. Papers, February 1975, pp. 180–181.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Mussman, H., Integrated Circuits Laboratory, Stanford University, private communication.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Griffith, J.M., and Henry, W.L., “A Sector Scanner for Real-time Two-dimensional Echocardiography,” Circulation 49:1147–1152, June 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Eggleton, R.C., and Johnston, K.W., “Real-time Scanning System Compared with Array Techniques,” Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Nov. 1974, pp. 16–18.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Holasek, E., Sohollu, A., and Parnell, E.W., “A Digitized, Direct Contact B-scanner for Ophthalmic Application,” J. Clinical Ultrasound 1:36–40, March 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Krause, W.E.E., and Soldner, R.E., “Ultrasonic Imaging Technique (B-scan) with High Image Rate for Medical Diagnosis,” Digest 7th International Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, August 1967, p. 21–3.Google Scholar

Section IV

  1. [1]
    Thurstone, F.L., and Melton, H.E., “Biomedical Ultrasonics,” IEEE Trans. on Indus. Elec. & Control Inst. IEC-1 (2):167–172, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Burckhardt, C.B., et al., “Methods for Increasing the Lateral Resolution of B-scan,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 5, op. cit., pp. 391–413.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Burckhardt, C.B., et al., “Focussing Ultrasound Over a Large Depth with an Annular Transducer- An Alternative Method,” IEEE Trans. on Sonics & Ultrasonics SU-22: 11–15, January 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Green, P.S., et al., “A New High-Performance Ultrasonic Camera,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 5, op. cit., pp. 493–503.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Fenner, W.R. and Stewart, G.E., “An Ultrasonic Holographic Imaging System for Medical Applications,” ibid., pp. 481–492.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Bom, N., et al., “Multiscan Echocardiography,” Circulation 48: 1066–1074, November 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Somer, J.C., “Electronic Sector Scanning for Ultrasonic Diagnosis,” Ultrasonics 6 (3):153–159, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Somer, J.C., et al., “Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging of the Brain with Electronic Sector Scanning System,” Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Nov. 1974, pp. 43–48.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Thurstone, F. L., and von Ramm, O. T., “A New Ultrasound Imaging Technique Employing Two-dimensional Electronic Beam Steering,” op. cit. Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Lobdell, O.O., “A Nonlinearly Processed Array for Enhanced Azimuthal Resolution,” IEEE Trans. on Sonics & Ultrasonics SU-15:202, Nov. 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Havlice, J.F., et al., “A New Acoustic Imaging Device,” Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Nov. 1973, pp. 13–18.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Fraser, J., et al., “A Two-dimensional Electronically Focused Imaging System,” Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Nov. 1974, pp. 19–23.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Vilkomerson, D., “Acoustic Imaging with Thin Annular Apertures,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 5, op. cit., pp. 283–316.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Knollman, G.C., et al., “Linear Receiving Array for Acoustic Imaging and Holography,” ibid., pp. 647–658.Google Scholar

Section V

  1. [1]
    Cook, R.L., “Experimental Investigation of Acoustic Imaging Sensors,” IEEE Trans. on Sonics & Ultrasonics SU-19 (4), October 1972.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Takagi, N., et al., “Solid-State Acoustic Image Sensor,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 4, op. cit., 1972, pp. 215–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Harrold, S.O., “A Solid-State Ultrasonic Image Converter,” Department of Electrical Engineering, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth, England, Nov. 1972.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Maginness, M.G., Plummer, J.D., and Meindl, J.D., “An Acoustic Image Sensor Using a Transmit-Receive Array,” op. cit. Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Plummer, J.D., Meindl, J.D., and Maginness, M.G., “An Ultrasonic Imaging System for Realtime Cardiac Imaging,” ISSCC Digest of Tech. Papers, Feb. 1974, pp. 162–163.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Beaver, W.L., Maginness, M.G., Plummer, J.D., and Meindl, J.D., “Ultrasonic Imaging Using Two-dimensional Transducer Arrays,” Cardiovascular Imaging and Image Processing: Theory and Practice — 1975, SPIE, Palos Verdes Estates, California (in press).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Macovski, A., and Norton, S., “High-resolution B-scan Systems Using a Circular Array,” Acoustical Holography, Vol. 6, N. Booth, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1975, pp. 121–143.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Melen, P.D., Shott, J. D., Walker, J.T., and Meindl, J.D., “CCD Dynamically Focused Lenses for Ultrasonic Imaging Systems,” 1975 CCD Applications Conference, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Barbe, D.F., “Imaging Devices Using the Charge Coupled Concept,” Proc. IEEE 63 (1):38–67, Jan. 1975.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Thorn, J.V., Booth, N.O., Sutton, J.L., and Saltzer, B.A., “Test and Evaluation of an Experimental Holographic Acoustic Imaging System,” Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, California, NUC TP 398, November 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Meindl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations