Cognition in Squirrel Monkeys A Contemporary Perspective

  • Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy

Abstract

The aims of this chapter are to review the recent literature on cognition in squirrel monkeys and to evaluate the findings with reference to normal, directed activity in natural environments; that is, in biological perspective. A biological perspective involves recognition that the functions of the nervous system (including learning, attention, perception, memory, and other aspects of cognition) have an impact on the organism’s life history, and that they must be evaluated in terms of that impact. We assume at the outset that the process of cognition provides the individual with potentially adaptable (and adaptive) ways to pick up information about the environment, to process this information, and to compare it against expectations (Neisser, 1976). This process guides behavior in a fundamental way. As Neisser (1976) puts it, cognition “is surely a matter of discovering what the environment is really like and adapting to it” (P. 9).

Keywords

Discrimination Task Squirrel Monkey Interspecific Comparison Titi Monkey Daily Path Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abordo, E., and Lee, J., 1977, Effect of introducing novel configurational cues on a learned color discrimination in squirrel monkeys, Percept. Mot. Skills 44: 147–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bishop, A., 1964, Use of the hand in lower primates, in: Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of Primates ( J. Beuttner-Janusch, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 133–225.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, H. J., 1972, Peripheral self-stimulation as a reward in fish, reptile, and mammal, Physiol. Behay. 8: 637–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Candland, D. K., Blumer, E. S., and Mumford, M. D., 1980, Urine as a communicator in a New World primate, Saimiri sciureus, Anim. Learn. Behay. 8: 465–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, D. L., and Gay, P. E., 1978, Behavioral correlates of social dominance, Biol. Psychiatry 13: 445–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Coe, C. L., Franklin, D., Smith, E. R., and Levine, S., 1982, Hormonal responses accompanying fear and agitation in the squirrel monkey, Physiol. Behay. 29 (6): 1051–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooper, L. A., and Regan, D. T., 1982, Attention, perception, and intelligence, in: Handbook of Human Intelligence ( R. J. Sternberg, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 123–169.Google Scholar
  8. Coss, R. G., 1970, The perceptual aspects of eye-spot patterns and their relevance to gaze behavior, in: Behaviour Studies in Psychiatry ( S. J. Hutt and C. Hutt, eds.), Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 121–147.Google Scholar
  9. Coss, R. G., 1972, Eye-like Schemata: Their Effect on Behaviour, Dissertation, University of Reading (unpublished).Google Scholar
  10. Czerny, P., and Thomas, R., 1975, Sameness—difference judgments in Saimiri sciureus based on volumetric cues, Anim. Learn. Behay. 3: 375–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Amato, M. R., 1973, Delayed matching and short-term memory in monkeys, in: The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Volume 17 ( G. H. Bower, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 227–269.Google Scholar
  12. D’Amato, M. R., and Worsham, R. W., 1972, Delayed matching in the capuchin monkey with brief sample durations, Learn. Motiv. 3: 304–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis, R. T. 1974, Monkeys as perceivers, in: Primate Behavior, Volume 3 ( L. A. Rosenblum, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–263.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, R. T., and Leary, R. W., 1968, Learning of detour problems by lemurs and seven species of monkeys, Percept. Mot. Skills 27: 1031–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis, R. T., Leary, R., Smith, M. D. C., and Thompson, R. J., 1968, Species differences in the gross behaviour of nonhuman primates, Behaviour 31: 326–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Delay, E. R., and Isaac, W., 1980, The effects of illumination, d-amphetamine, and methylphenidate upon vigilance performance of squirrel monkeys, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 15: 203–206.Google Scholar
  17. Devine, J. V., 1970, Stimulus attributes and training procedures in learning set formation of rhesus and cebus monkeys, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 73 (1): 62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisenburg, J. F., Muckenhirn, N. A., and Rudran, R., 1972, The relation between ecology and social structure in primates, Science 176: 863–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Epple, G., 1974, Olfactory communication in South American primates, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 237: 261–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fife, D. D., and Kamback, M., 1970, The ability of squirrel monkeys to solve randomly presented string problems, Psychon. Sci. 18 (3): 131–132.Google Scholar
  21. Fragaszy, D. M., 1978, Contrasts in feeding behavior in squirrel and titi monkeys, in: Recent Advances in Primatology, Volume 1 ( D. J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 363–367.Google Scholar
  22. Fragaszy, D. M., 1979, Squirrel and titi monkeys in a novel environment, in: Captivity and Behavior ( J. Erwin, T. Maple, and G. Mitchell, eds.), Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, pp. 172–216.Google Scholar
  23. Fragaszy, D. M., 1980, Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks, Z. Tierpsychol. 54: 1–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fragaszy, D. M., 1981, Comparative performance in discrimination learning tasks in two New World primates (Saimiri sciureus and Callicebus moloch), Anim. Learn. Behay. 9: 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fragaszy, D. M., 1983, Preliminary quantitative studies of prehension in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), Brain Behay. Evol. 23: 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fragaszy, D. M., and Mason, W., 1978, response to novelty in Saimiri and Callicebus: Influence of social context, Primates 19: 311–331.Google Scholar
  27. Fragaszy, D. M., and Mason, W., 1983, Comparative studies of feeding in captive squirrel and titi monkeys, J. Comp. Psychol. 97: 310–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glickman, S., and Sroges, R., 1966, Curiosity in zoo animals, Behaviour 26: 151–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gossette, R. L., and Kraus, G., 1968, Successive discrimination performance of mammalia species on a brightness task, Percept. Mot. Skills 27: 675–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gossette, R. L., and Slonim, P., 1968, Spatial SDR performance across three species of New World monkeys, Psychon. Sci. 14: 222–223.Google Scholar
  31. Gossette, R. L., Kraus, G., and Speiss, J., 1968, Comparison of successive discrimination reversal (SDR) performances of seven mammalian species on a spatial task. Psychon. Sci. 12: 193–194.Google Scholar
  32. Gould, S. J., 1977, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  33. Gould, S. J., and Lewontin, R. C., 1979, The spandrels of San Marcos and the Panglossian paradigm: a Critique of the adaptationist programme, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 205: 581–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Green, S., 1975, Auditory sensitivity and equal loudness in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), J. Exp. Anal. Behay. 23: 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Groves, P. M., and Thompson, R. F., 1970, Habituation: A dual process theory, Psychol. Rev. 77: 419–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harris, D. G., and Meyer, M. E., 1971, The relationship between visual acuity and performance on patterned string problems by infrahuman primates, Psychon. Sci. 22: 160.Google Scholar
  37. Harlow, H., 1949, The formation of learning sets, Psych. Rev. 56: 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Haude, R. H., and Ray, O. S., 1974, Visual observing behavior in the squirrel monkey, Anim. Learn. Behay. 2: 138–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hennessey, M. B., Coe, C. L., Mendoza, S. P., Lowe, E. P., and Levine, S., 1978, Scent-marking and olfactory investigatory behavior in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), Behay. Biol. 24: 57–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Herzog, H., Grant, D., and Roberts, W., 1977, Effects of sample duration and spaced repetition upon delayed matching-to-sample in monkeys (Macaca arctoides and Saimiri sciureus), Anim. Learn. Behay. 5: 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hill, C. O., 1960, Primates, Volume IV, Cebidae, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  42. Hodos, W., 1970, Evolutionary interpretations of neural and behavioral studies of living vertebrates, in: Neurosciences, Volume 12, ( F. O. Schimdt, ed.), Rockefeller Univeristy Press, New York, pp. 26–39.Google Scholar
  43. Hornbuckle, P. A., 1972, Delayed-response performance as a function of sensory stimulation in the squirrel and owl monkey, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 79: 99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Humphrey, N. K., 1972, “Interest” and “pleasure”: Two determinants of a monkey’s visual preferences, Perception 1:395–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Humphrey, N. K., and Keeble, G. R., 1974, The reaction of monkeys to “fearsome” pictures, Nature 251: 500–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hunt, E., 1983, On the nature of intelligence, Science 219: 141–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hupfer, K., and Marus, M., 1976, Operant conditioning of the squirrel monkey with social reinforcement, Naturwissenschaften 62: 42–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Isaac, W., 1969, The influence of illumination upon the temporal patterning of responses in squirrel and owl monkeys, Psychon. Sci. 14: 243–244.Google Scholar
  49. Izawa, K., 1979, Foods and feeding behavior of wild black-capped capuchins (Cebus apella), Primates 20: 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jacobs, G. H., 1972, Increment-threshold spectral sensitivity in the squirrel monkey, J. Comp. Physiol. Psycho!. 79: 425–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jacobs, G. H., 1973, Visual sensitivity in the squirrel monkey, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 38: 371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jacobs, G. H., 1977, Visual sensitivity: Significant within-species variations in a non-human primate, Science 197: 499–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jarosch, E., 1969, Social contacts and “task-directed” activity in the squirrel monkey, in: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Primatology, Volume 1 ( C. R. Carpenter, ed.), Karger, Basel, pp. 137–142.Google Scholar
  54. Johnston, T. D., 1981, Contrasting approaches to a theory of learning, Behay. Brain Sci. 4: 125–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnston, T. D., 1982, Learning and the evolution of developmental systems, in: Learning, Development and Culture ( H. C. Plotkin, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 411–442.Google Scholar
  56. Kahneman, D., 1973, Attention and Effort, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  57. Kamil, A. C., 1978, Systematic foraging by a nectar-feeding bird, the amakihi (Loxops virens), J. Comp. Physiol. Psycho!. 92 (3): 388–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kandel, E. R., 1976, Cellular Basis of Behavior, Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  59. King, J. E., 1971, Determinants of serial discrimination learning by squirrel monkeys, Learn. Motiv. 2: 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. King, J. E., and Goodman, R. R., 1966, Successive and concurrent discrimination by rock squirrels and squirrel monkeys, Percept. Mot. Skills 23: 703–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. King, J. E., Flaningham, M., and Rees, W., 1968, Delayed response with different delay conditions by squirrel monkeys and fox squirrels, Anim. Behay. 116: 271–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kintz, B. L., Foster, M. S., Hart, J. O., O’Malley, J. J., Palmer, E. L., and Sullivan, S. L., 1969, A comparison of learning sets in humans, primates, and subprimates, J. Gen. Psychol. 80: 189–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leger, D., Mason, W. A., and Fragaszy, D. M., 1981, Sexual segregation, cliques, and social power in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) groups, Behaviour 76: 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mackintosh, N. J., 1974, The Psychology of Animal Learning, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  65. Mahan, J. L., Jr., and Rumbaugh, D. M., 1963, Observational learning in the squirrel monkey, Percept. Motor Skills 17: 686.Google Scholar
  66. Marriott, B. M., 1976, Picture Perception in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), Ph.D. Dissertation University of Aberdeen (University Microfilms International #7810247).Google Scholar
  67. Mason, W. A., 1968, Use of space by Callicebus groups, in: Primates: Studies in Adapatation and Variability, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 200–216.Google Scholar
  68. Mason, W. A., 1971, Field and laboratory studies of social organization in Saimiri and Callicebus, in: Primate Behavior: Developments in Field and Laboratory Research, Volume 2 ( L. A. Rosenblum, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 107–137.Google Scholar
  69. Mason, W. A., 1974, Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Behavior of male—female pairs, Folio Primatol. 22: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mason, W. A., 1975, Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Strength and specificity of attraction between male—female cagemates, Folia Primato. 12: 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mason, W. A., 1982, Primate social intelligence: Contributions from the laboratory, in: Animal Mind—Human Mind, Report of the Dahlem Workshop Konferenzen ( D. R. Griffin, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 131–143.Google Scholar
  72. McGonigle, B., and Chalmers, M., 1977, Are monkeys logical?, Nature 267: 694–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McGonigle, B., and Flook, J., 1978, The learning of hand preferences by squirrel monkeys, Psychol. Res. 40: 93–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McGonigle, B., and Jones, B. T., 1978, Levels of stimulus processing by the squirrel monkey: Relative and absolute judgments compared, Perception 7: 635–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Menzel, E. W., Jr., 1973, Chimpanzee spatial memory, Science 182: 943–945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Menzel, E. W., Jr., and Juno, C., 1982, Marmosets (Saguinus fuscicollis): Are learning sets learned?, Science 217: 750–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Milton, K., 1980, The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Mitchell, G., 1972, Looking behavior in the rhesus monkey, J. Phenom. Psychol. 3: 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murray, S. G., and King, J. E., 1973, Snake avoidance in feral and laboratory reared squirrel monkeys, Behaviour 47: 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Neisser, U., 1976, Cognition and Reality, Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  81. Nitsch, F. M., and Jarosch, E., 1972, Individual learning strategies for discrimination between visual sequences in squirrel monkeys, Psychol. Forsch. 35: 335–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Noble, C. S., and Thomas, R. K., 1970, Oddity learning in the squirrel monkey, Psychon. Sci. 19: 305–307.Google Scholar
  83. Nunnally, J. C., and Lemond, L. C., 1973, Exploratory behavior and human development, in: Advances in Child Development and Behavior ( H. Reese, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 60–109.Google Scholar
  84. Parker, C. E., 1966, Total darkness as an aversive stimulus condition for the squirrel monkey, Psychon. Sci. 6: 111–112.Google Scholar
  85. Parker, S. T. and Gibson, K. R., 1979, A developmental model of the evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids, Behay. Brain Sci. 2: 367–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Passingham, R. E., 1981, Primate specialization in brain and intelligence, Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 46: 361–368.Google Scholar
  87. Petrinovich, L., and Patterson, T. L., 1981, Field studies of habituation: IV. Sensitization as a function of the distribution and novelty of song playback to white-crowned sparrows, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 95: 805–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Phillips, M. J., and Mason, W. A., 1976, Comparative studies of social behavior in Callicebus and Saimiri: Social looking in male—female pairs, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 7: 55–56.Google Scholar
  89. Plotkin, H. C., and Odling-Smee, F. J., 1979, Learning, change, and evolution: An inquiry into the teleonomy of learning, in: Advances in the Study of Behavior, Volume 10 ( J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, C. Beer, and M. Busnel, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–41.Google Scholar
  90. Plotkin, H. C., and Odling-Smee, F. J., 1982, Learning in the context of a hierarchy of knowledge-gaining processes, in: Learning, Development and Culture ( H. C. Plotkin, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 443–471.Google Scholar
  91. Richard, A. F., 1981, Changing assumptions in primate ecology, Am. Anthropol. 83: 517–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Riopelle, A. J., 1967, Animal Problem Solving, Penguin Books, Hammondsworth, Middlesex, England.Google Scholar
  93. Roiblat, H. L., 1982, The meaning of representation in animal memory, Behay. Brain Sci. 5: 353–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rumbaugh, D. M., 1968, The learning and sensory capacities of the squirrel monkey in phylogenetic perspective, in: The Squirrel Monkey ( L. A. Rosenblum and R. W. Cooper, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 255–317.Google Scholar
  95. Rumbaugh, D., 1974, Comparative primate learning and its contributions to understanding development, play, intelligence and language, in: Perspectives in Primate Biology, Volume 9 ( B. Chiarelli, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 253–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rumbaugh, D., and McCormack, C., 1967, The learning skills of primates: A comparative study of apes and monkeys, in: Neue Ergebnisse der Primatologie (D. Stark, R. Schnieder, and H. Kunh, eds.), Gustav Fisher, Stuttgart, pp. 289–306.Google Scholar
  97. Rumbaugh, D., and McCormack, C., 1969, Attentional skills of great apes compared to those of gibbons and monkeys, in: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Primatology, Volume 1 ( C. R., Carpenter, ed.), Karger, Basel, pp. 167–172.Google Scholar
  98. Schott, D., 1975, Quantitative analysis of the vocal repertoire of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), Z. Tierpsychol. 38: 225–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schwam, E., and Gamzu E., 1975, Constraints on autoshaping in the squirrel monkey: Stimulus and response factors, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 5: 369–372.Google Scholar
  100. Smith, H. J., King, J. E., and Newberry, P., 1976, Facilitation of discrimination learning-set in squirrel monkeys by colored food stimuli, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 7: 5–8.Google Scholar
  101. Sternberg, R. J., 1977, Intelligence, Information Processing, and Analogical Reasoning, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  102. Sternberg, R. J., and Salter, W., 1982, Conceptions of intelligence, in: Handbook of Human Intelligence ( R. J. Sternberg, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 3–28.Google Scholar
  103. Thomas, R. K., 1980, Evolution of intelligence: An approach to its assessment, Brain Behay. Evol. 17: 454–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Thomas, R. K., 1982, The assessment of primate intelligence, J. Hum. Evol. 11: 247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Thomas, R. K., and Boyd, M. G., 1973, A comparison of Cebus albifrons and Saimiri sciureus on oddity performance, Anim. Learn. Behay. 1: 151–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Thomas, R. K., and Chase, L., 1980, Relative numerousness judgments by squirrel monkeys, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 16: 79–82.Google Scholar
  107. Thomas, R. K., and Crosby, T. N., 1977, Absolute versus relative class conceptual behaviour in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), Anim. Learn. Behay. 5: 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thomas, R. K., and Ingram, D. K., 1979, Conceptual volume judgments by squirrel monkeys, Am. J. Psychol. 92: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Thomas, R. K., and Kerr, R. S., 1976, Conceptual conditional discrimination in Saimiri sciureus, Anim. Learn. Behay. 4: 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Thomas, R. K., and Peay, L., 1976, Length judgments by squirrel monkeys: Evidence for conservation?, Dev. Psychol. 12: 349–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Thomas, R. K., Fowlkes, D., and Vickery, J. D., 1980. Conceptual numerousness judgments by squirrel monkeys, Am. J. Psycho 93: 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thorington, R. W., 1967, Feeding activity of Cebus and Saimiri in a Colombian rain forest, in: Neue Ergebnisse der Primatologie (D. Starck, R. Schnieder, and H. Kuhn, eds.), Gustav Fisher, Stuttgart, pp. 180–189.Google Scholar
  113. Thorington, R. W., 1968, Observations of squirrel monkeys in a Colombian forest, in: The Squirrel Monkey ( R. W. Cooper and L. A. Rosenblum eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 69–85.Google Scholar
  114. Treichler, F. R., Conner, J. B., and Ricciardi, A. M., 1970, Probability learning and reversal by experimentally naive rhesus and squirrel monkeys, Learn. Motiv. 1: 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Visalberghi, E., and Mason, W. A., 1983, Determinants of success in problem-solving situations in Saimiri and Callicebus, Primates. 24: 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Warren, J. M., 1965, Primate learning in comparative perspective, in: Behavior of Nonhuman Primates, Volume I ( A. Schrier, H. Harlow, and F. Stollnitz, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 249–281.Google Scholar
  117. Warren, J. M., 1974, Possibly unique characteristics of learning by primates, J. Hum. Evol. 3: 445–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Welles, J. F., 1972, The Anthropoid Hand: A Comparative Study of Prehension, Ph.D. Dissertation, Tulane University (University Microfilms International #7325309).Google Scholar
  119. Welles, J. F., 1976, A comparative study of manual prehension in anthropoids, Sauget. Mitt. 24: 26–38.Google Scholar
  120. Williams, R. B., Lane, J. D., Kuhn, C. M., Melosh, W., White, A. D., and Schanberg, S. M., 1982, Type A behavior and elevated physiological and neuroendocrine responses to cognitive tasks, Science 218: 483–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Winter, P., 1968, Social communication in the squirrel monkey, in: The Squirrel Monkey ( L. A. Rosenblum and R. W. Cooper, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 235–253.Google Scholar
  122. Wolman, B. D., 1973, Dictionary of the Behavioral Sciences, Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Worthington, C. S., 1972, Sensory input and circadian effects upon cage activity in two species of cebid monkey, Psychon. Sci. 28: 165–166.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and PhysiologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations