Opiates as Reinforcing Stimuli

  • James H. Woods
  • Charles R. Schuster


Morphine is the principle derivative of opium and the prototypic opiate for a great deal of pharmacologic investigation. One way to examine the significance of the behavioral properties of morphine and other opiates is to investigate the manner in which they modify and strengthen behavior. If intravenous morphine or other opiates are presented immediately following a response and the response frequency increases, then opiates can be said to serve as reinforcers. This proposition supposes that morphine and morphinelike drugs might act as reinforcers in the absence of setting conditions (e.g., drug deprivation and conditioning history). Other reinforcers (e.g., intracranial stimulation and changes in illumination) appear to have such properties.


Rhesus Monkey Withdrawal Syndrome Drug Infusion Physical Dependence Food Presentation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cochin, J., Gruhzit, C.C., Woods, L.A., and Seevers, M.H. Further observations on addiction to methadone in the monkey.Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1948, 69, 430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Davis, J.D., and Miller, N.E. Fear and pain: Their effect on self-injection of amobarbital sodium in rats. Science, 1963, 141, 1286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ferster, C.B., and Skinner, B.F. Schedules of Reinforcement. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goldberg, S.R., Woods, J.H. and Schuster, C.R. Nalorphine-induced changes in morphine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Fed. Proc, 1968, 27, 754.Google Scholar
  5. Kelleher, R.T., and Morse, W.H. Escape behavior and punished behavior. Fed. Proc, 1964, 23, 808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kelleher, R.T. and Morse, W.H. Determinants of the specificity of behavioral effects of drugs. Ergebn. Physiol, 1968, 60, 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kolb, L., and DuMez, A.G. Experimental addiction of animals to opiates. U.S. Public Health Reports, 1931, 46, 698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Martin, W.R. Opioid antagonists. Pharmac o I. Rev., 1967, 19, 463.Google Scholar
  9. McCarthy, D.A. Pharmacologic analysis of mechanism in morphine dependent state. Dissertation Abstracts, 1960, 20, 4683.Google Scholar
  10. McMillan, D.E. Behavioral interactions of naloxone with morphine and cyclozocine in the pigeon. Fed. Proc, 1969, 28, 736.Google Scholar
  11. McMillan, D.E.and Morse, W.H. Some effects of morphine and morphine antagonists on schedule-controlled behavior. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1967, 157, 175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Nichols, J.R. How opiates change behavior. Sci. Amer., 1965, 212, 80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pickens, R., and Thompson, T. Cocaine-reinforced behavior in rats: Effects of reinforcement magnitude and fixed ratio size. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1968, 161, 122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Schuster, C.R. Psychological approaches to opiate dependence and self-administration by laboratory animals. Fed. Proc, 1970, 29, 2–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Schuster, C.R.Variables affecting the self-administration of drugs by rhesus monkeys. In Vagtborg, H., ed., Use of Nonhuman Primates in Drug Evaluation. Austin, University of Texas Press, 1968, 283.Google Scholar
  16. Schuster, C.R. and Woods, J.H. The conditioned reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with morphine reinforcement. International Journal of the Addictions, 1968, 3, 223.Google Scholar
  17. Seevers, M.H. Opiate addictions in the monkey. II. Dilaudid in comparison to morphine, heroin, and codeine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1936, 56, 157.Google Scholar
  18. Seevers, M.H.and Deneau, G.A. Physiological aspects of tolerance and physical dependence. In W.S. Rott and F.G. Hoffman, eds., Physiological Pharmacology, New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1963, 1, 565.Google Scholar
  19. Thompson, T., and Schuster, C.R. Morphine self-administration, food-reinforced and avoidance behaviors in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacologia, 1964, 5, 87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weeks, J.R. Experimental morphine addiction: Method for automatic intravenous injections in unrestrained rats. Science, 1962, 738, 143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Woods, J.H. Effects of morphine, methadone and codeine on schedule-controlled behavior in the pigeon and rhesus monkey. Fed. Proc, 1969, 28, 511.Google Scholar
  22. Woods, J.H. and Schuster, C.R. Reinforcement properties of morphine, cocaine, and SPA as a function of unit dose. International Journal of the Addictions, 1968, 3, 231.Google Scholar
  23. Woods, L.A., Wyngaarden, J.B., and Seevers, M.H. Addiction potentialities of 1, l-diphenyl-l-(b-dimethylaminopropyl)-butanone-2 hydrochloride (amidone) in the monkey. Proc Soc Exp. Biol. Med., 1947, 65, 113.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • James H. Woods
    • 1
  • Charles R. Schuster
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations