Shell-Breaking Predation through Time

  • Geerat J. Vermeij
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 3)


One question that can be asked only of the fossil record is whether largescale changes in the conditions of life have taken place in the course of earth history. This can be done by tracing changes through time in functional morphology. In the past, functional morphology has been applied to particular organisms. Now that many species have been studied in this way, a broader view can be taken, in which the rise and fall of adaptive types can be ascertained in relation to environmental changes.


Late Cretaceous Early Jurassic Spiny Lobster Gastropod Shell Canal Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbass, H. L., 1979, A monograph on the Egyptian Paleocene and Eocene gastropods, Egyptian General Organization of Mining and Geological Research, Geological Survey and Geological Museum, Paleontological Series Monograph 4.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. R., 1981, Predation scars preserved in Chesterian brachiopods: Probable cul-prits and evolutionary consequences for the articulates, J. Paleontol. 55: 192–203.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, E. C., 1955, Middle Cretaceous Gastropoda from Punta China, Baja California, Mex-ico, J. Paleontol. 29: 400–432.Google Scholar
  4. Bertness, M. D., and Cunningham, C., 1981, Crab shell-crushing predation and gastropod architectural defense, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 50: 213–230.Google Scholar
  5. Blanckenhorn, M., 1927, Die fossilen Gastropoden and Scaphopoden der Kreide von Syrien-Palästina, Palaeontographica 69: 111–186.Google Scholar
  6. Boyd, D. W., and Newell, N. D., 1972, Taphonomy and diagenesis of a Permian fossil assemblage from Wyoming, J. Paleontol. 46: 1–14.Google Scholar
  7. Branch, G. M., 1979, Aggression by limpets against invertebrate predators, Anim. Behay. 27: 408–410.Google Scholar
  8. Branch, G. M., and Marsh, A. C., 1978, Tenacity and shell shape in six Patella species: Adaptive features, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 34: 111–130.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, S. C., Cassuto, S. R., and Loos, R. W., 1979, Biomechanics of chelipeds in some decapod crustaceans, J. Zool. London 188: 153–169.Google Scholar
  10. Brun, E., 1971, Predation of Chlamys islandica (O. F. Müller) by eiders Somateria spp., Astarte 4: 23–29.Google Scholar
  11. Brunton, H., 1966, Predation and shell damage in a Visean brachiopod fauna, Palaeontology 9: 355–359.Google Scholar
  12. Burrows, M., 1969, The mechanics and neural control of the prey capture strike in the mantid shrimps Squilla and Hemisquilla, Z. Vgl. Physiol. 62: 361–381.Google Scholar
  13. Cain, A. J., 1977, Variation in the spire index of some coiled gastropod shells and its evo-lutionary significance, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 277: 377–428.Google Scholar
  14. Carriker, M. R., 1951, Observations on the penetration of tightly closing bivalves by Busycon and other predators, Ecology 32: 73–83.Google Scholar
  15. Colton, H. S., 1916, On some varieties of Thais lapillus in the Mount Desert region, a study of individual ecology, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 440–454.Google Scholar
  16. Conway Morris, S., 1979, The Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) fauna, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10: 327–349.Google Scholar
  17. Creese, R. G., and Underwood, A. J., 1976, Observations on the biology of the trochid gas-tropod Austrocochlea constricts (Lamarck) (Prosobranchia). I. Factors affecting shell-banding pattern, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 23: 211–228.Google Scholar
  18. Currey, J. D., 1976, Further studies on the mechanical properties of mollusc shell material, J. Zool. London 180: 445–453.Google Scholar
  19. Currey, J. D., 1977, Mechanical properties of mother of pearl in tension, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 196: 443–463.Google Scholar
  20. Currey, J. D., and Kohn, A. J., 1976, Fracture in the crossed-lamellar structure of Conus shells, J. Mater. Sci. 11: 1615–1623.Google Scholar
  21. Currey, J. D., and Taylor, J. D., 1974, The mechanical behaviour of some molluscan hard tissues, J. Zool. London 173: 395–406.Google Scholar
  22. Delpey, G., 1940–1942, Les gastéropodes Permiens du Cambodge, J. Conchyliol. 84: 255–278.Google Scholar
  23. Dockery, D. T., III, 1977, Mollusca of the Moodys Branch Formation, Mississippi, Bull. Mississippi Geol. Econ. Topogr. Surv. ( Jackson ) 120.Google Scholar
  24. Dudley, E. C., 1980, Crab predation on two small marine gastropods (Cerithiacea), Nautilus 94: 162–164.Google Scholar
  25. Dudley, R., 1980, Crab-crushing of periwinkle shells, Littorina littorea, from two adjacent geographical provinces, Nautilus 94: 108–112.Google Scholar
  26. Edwards, D. C., 1969, Predators on Olivella biplicata, including a species-specific predator avoidance response, Veliger 11: 326–333.Google Scholar
  27. Einer, R. W., 1978, The mechanics of predation by the shore crab, Carcinus maenas (L.), on the edible mussel, Mytilus edulis L., Oecologia (Berlin) 36: 333–344.Google Scholar
  28. Einer, R. W., and Hughes, R. N., 1978, Energy maximization in the diet of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 103–116.Google Scholar
  29. Einer, R. W., and Jamieson, G. S., 1979, Predation of sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, by the rock crab, Cancer irroratus, and the American lobster, Homarus americanus, J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36: 537–543.Google Scholar
  30. Einer, R. W., and Raffaelli, D. G., 1980, Interactions between two marine snails, Littorina rudis Maton and Littorina nigrolineata Gray, a predator, Carcinus maenas (L.), and a parasite, Microphallus similis Jägerskiold, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 43: 151–160.Google Scholar
  31. Ewers, W. H., 1967, Shell pattern and intraspecific recognition in gastropods, Proc. Malacol. Soc. London 37: 343–346.Google Scholar
  32. Fischer, J.-C., 1969, Géologie, paléontologie, et paléoécologie du Bathonien au sud-ouest du Massif Ardennais, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris Ser. C 20: 1–319.Google Scholar
  33. Fotheringham, N., 1971, Field identification of crab predation on Shaskyus festivus and Ocenebra poulsoni (Prosobranchia: Muricidae ), Veliger 14: 204.Google Scholar
  34. Gasiorowski, S. M., 1973, Les rhyncholites, Geobios 6: 127–196.Google Scholar
  35. George, R. W., and Main, A. R., 1968, The evolution of spiny lobsters (Palinuridae): A study of evolution in the marine environment, Evolution 22: 803–820.Google Scholar
  36. Glaessner, M. F., 1969, Decapoda, in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part R, Arthropoda 4 (2), ( R. C. Moore, ed.), pp. R399–R533, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  37. Glibert, M., 1938, Faune malacologique des Sables de Wemmel. II. Gastropodes, scaphopodes, cephalopodes, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. 85: 3–190.Google Scholar
  38. Gould, S. J., 1966, Notes on shell morphology and classification of the Siliquariidae (Gastropoda): The protoconch and slit of Siliquaria squamata Blainville, Novitates 2263: 113.Google Scholar
  39. Gould, S. J., 1968, Phenotypic reversion to ancestral form and habit in a marine snail, Nature (London) 220: 804.Google Scholar
  40. Gould, S. J., 1969, Ecology and functional significance of uncoiling in Vermicularia spirata: An essay on gastropod form, Bull. Mar. Sci. 19: 432–445.Google Scholar
  41. Griffiths, C. L., and Seiderer, J. L., 1980, Rock-lobsters and mussels—Limitations on pref-erences in a predator–prey interaction, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 44: 95–109.Google Scholar
  42. Gross, W., 1967, Uber das Gebiss der Acanthodier und Placodermen, J. Linn. Soc. London Zool. 47: 121–130.Google Scholar
  43. Haas, 0., 1953, Mesozoic invertebrate faunas of Peru. Part II. Late Triassic gastropods from central Peru, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 101: 9–328.Google Scholar
  44. Hadfield, M. G., Kay, E. A., Gillette, M. U., and Lloyd, M., 1972, The Vermetidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Hawaiian Islands, Mar. Biol. 12: 81–98.Google Scholar
  45. Hamilton, P. V., 1976, Predation on Littorina irrorata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) by Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea: Portunidae), Bull. Mar. Sci. 26: 403–409.Google Scholar
  46. Heller, J., 1979, Visual versus non-visual selection of shell colour in an Israeli freshwater snail, Oecologia (Berlin) 44: 98–104.Google Scholar
  47. Holthuis, L. B., and Manning, R. B., 1969, Stomatopoda, in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part R, Arthropoda 4(2), ( R. C. Moore, ed.), pp. R535–R552, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  48. Hudleston, W. H., 1887–1896, A Monograph of the Inferior Oolite Gasteropods, Palaeontographical Society, London.Google Scholar
  49. Hughes, R. N., and Elner, R. W., 1979, Tactics of a predator, Carcinus maenas, and morphological responses of the prey, Nucella lapillus, J. Anim. Ecol. 48: 65–78Google Scholar
  50. Kauffman, E. G., 1972, Ptychodus predation upon a Cretaceous Inoceramus, Paleontology 15: 439–444.Google Scholar
  51. Kauffman, E. G., and Kesling, R. V., 1960, An Upper Cretaceous ammonite bitten by a mososaur, Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich. 15: 193–248.Google Scholar
  52. Kaunhouwen, F., 1898, Die Gastropoden der Maestrichter Kreide, Palaeontol. Abh. ( Berlin) N.F. 4.Google Scholar
  53. Kennedy, W. J., and Cobban, W. A., 1976, Aspects of ammonite biology, biogeography, and biostratigraphy, Spec. Pap. Palaeontol. 17.Google Scholar
  54. Kent, B. W., 1981>, Prey dropped by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on soft sediments, Auk 98: 350–354.Google Scholar
  55. Kier, P. M., 1974, Evolutionary trends and their functional significance in the post-Paleozoic echinoids, J. Paleontol., Paleontol. Soc. Mem. 48 (5).Google Scholar
  56. Kitching, J. A., Muntz, L., and Ebling, F. J., 1966, The ecology of Lough Ine. XV. The ecological significance of shell and body forms in Nucella, J. Anim. Ecol. 35: 113–126.Google Scholar
  57. Liem, K. F., 1973, Evolutionary strategies and morphological innovations: Cichlid pharyngeal jaws, Syst. Zool. 22: 425–441.Google Scholar
  58. Liem, K. F., and Osse, J. W. M., 1975, Biological versatility, evolution, and food resource exploitation in African cichlid fishes, Am. Zool. 15: 427–454.Google Scholar
  59. Linsley, R. M., 1978, Locomotion rates and shell form in the Gastropoda, Malacologia 17: 193–206.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, B. A., 1975, The biology of Terebra gouldi Deshayes, 1859, and a discussion of life history similarities among other terebrids of similar proboscis type, Pac. Sci. 29: 227–241.Google Scholar
  61. Morton, J. E., 1955, The evolution of vermetid gastropods, Pac. Sci. 9: 3–15.Google Scholar
  62. Moy-Thomas, J. A., and Miles, R. S., 1971, Palaeozoic Fishes, Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  63. Nielsen, C., 1975, Observations on Buccinum undatum L. attacking bivalves and on prey responses, With a short review of attack methods of other prosobranchs, Ophelia 13:87–108.Google Scholar
  64. Packard, A., 1972, Cephalopods and fish: The limits of convergence, Biol. Rev. 47: 241–307.Google Scholar
  65. Paine, R. T., 1962, Ecological diversification in sympatric gastropods of the genus Busycon, Evolution 16: 515–523.Google Scholar
  66. Palmer, A. R., 1979, Fish predation and the evolution of gastropod shell sculpture: Experimental and geographic evidence, Evolution 33: 697–713.Google Scholar
  67. Papp, A., Zapfe, H., Bachmayer, F., and Tauber, A. F., 1947, Lebensspuren mariner Krebse, K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. Sitzber. 155: 281–317.Google Scholar
  68. Patterson, C., 1964, A review of Mesozoic acanthopterygian fishes, with special reference to those of the English Chalk, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 247: 213–482.Google Scholar
  69. Paul, C. R. C., 1977, Evolution of primitive echinoderms, in: Patterns of Evolution as Illus-trated by the Fossil Record ( A. Hallam, ed.), pp. 123–157, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  70. Peel, J. S., 1975, A new Silurian gastropod from Wisconsin and the ecology of uncoiling in Paleozoic gastropods, Bull. Geol. Soc. Den. 24: 211–221.Google Scholar
  71. Peel, J. S., 1977, Systematics and palaeoecology of the Silurian gastropods of the Arisaig Group, Nova Scotia, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Biol. Skr. 21 (2): 5–89.Google Scholar
  72. Pritchard, P. C. H., 1979, Taxonomy, evolution, and zoogeography, in: Turtles: Perspectives and Research (M. Harless and H. Morlock, eds.), pp. 1–42, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Reimchen, T. E., 1979, Substratum heterogeneity, crypsis, and colour polymorphism in an intertidal snail (Littorina mariae), Can. J. Zool. 57: 1070–1085.Google Scholar
  74. Repenning, C. A., 1976, Enhydra and Enhydriodon from the Pacific coast of North America, J. Res. U.S. Geol. Surv. 4: 305–315.Google Scholar
  75. Rex, M. A., and Boss, K. J., 1976, Open coiling in Recent gastropods, Malacologie 15: 289–297.Google Scholar
  76. Riegraf, W., 1973, Bissspuren auf Jurassischen Belemniten-rostren, Neves Jahrb. Geol. Palaeontol. Monatsh. 8: 494–500.Google Scholar
  77. Rohr, D. M., 1980, Ordovician—Devonian Gastropoda from the Klamath Mountains, California, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 171: 141–199.Google Scholar
  78. Rollins, H. B., Eldredge, N., and Spiller, J., 1971, Gastropoda and Monoplacophora of the Solsville Member (Middle Devonian, Marcellus Formation) in the Chenango Valley, New York State, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 144: 131–170.Google Scholar
  79. Romer, A. S., 1966, Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed., University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Rudwick, M. J. S., 1970, Living and Fossil Brachiopods, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  80. Runnegar, B., Pojeta, J., Jr., Taylor, M. E., and Collins, D., 1979, New species of the Cambrian and Ordovician chitons Matthevia and Chelodes from Wisconsin and Queensland: Evidence for the early history of polyplacophoran mollusks, J. Paleontol. 53: 1374–1394.Google Scholar
  81. Schaeffer, B., 1967, Comments on elasmobranch evolution, in: Sharks, Skates, and Rays ( P. W. Gilbert, R. F. Mathewson, and D. P. Hall, eds.), pp. 3–35, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  82. Schaeffer, D. E., and Rosen, D. E., 1961, Major adaptive levels in the evolution of the actinopterygian feeding mechanism, Am. Zool. 1: 187–204.Google Scholar
  83. Schäfer, W., 1954, Form and Funktion der Brachyuren Scheere, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 48: 1–66.Google Scholar
  84. Schram, F. R., 1974, Convergences between Late Paleozoic and modern caridoid Malacostraca, Syst. Zool. 23: 323–332.Google Scholar
  85. Schram, F. R., 1979, The genus Archaeocaris, with a general review of the Palaeostomatopoda (Hoplocarida: Malacostraca ), San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. Trans. 19: 57–66.Google Scholar
  86. Seed, R., 1980, Predator—prey relationships between the mud crab Panopeus herbstii, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, and the Atlantic ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 11: 445–458.Google Scholar
  87. Shoup, J. B., 1968, Shell opening by crabs of the genus Calappa, Science 160: 887–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Siegfried, W. R., 1977, Mussel-dropping behaviour of kelp gulls, S. Afr. J. Sci. 73: 337–341.Google Scholar
  89. Sohl, N. F., 1960, Archaeogastropoda, Mesogastropoda and stratigraphy of the Ripley, Owl Creek, and Prairie Bluff formations, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 331: 1–151.Google Scholar
  90. Sohl, N. F., 1964, Neogastropoda, Opisthobranchia and Basommatophora from the Ripley, Owl Creek, and Prairie Bluff formations, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 331 : 153–344.Google Scholar
  91. Sohl, N. F., 1965, Marine Jurassic gastropods, central and southern Utah, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 503: D1 - D29.Google Scholar
  92. Speden, I. G., 1971, Notes on New Zealand fossil Mollusca. 2. Predation on New Zealand Cretaceous species of Inoceramus (Bivalvia), N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys. 14:56–70.Google Scholar
  93. Stoliczka, F., 1868, Cretaceous fauna of southern India. II. The Gastropoda, Mem. Geol. Surv. India 2.Google Scholar
  94. Taylor, J. D., Morris, N. J., and Taylor, C. N., 1980, Food specialization and the evolution of predatory prosobranch gastropods, Palaeontology 23: 375–409.Google Scholar
  95. Thomson, K. S., 1971, The adaptation and early evolution of early fishes, Q. Rev. Biol. 46: 139–166.Google Scholar
  96. Thomson, K. S., 1977, The pattern of diversification among fishes, in: Patterns of Evolution as Illustrated by the Fossil Record ( A. Hallam, ed.), pp. 376–404, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  97. Thurmond, J. T., 1974, Lower vertebrate faunas of the Trinity Division in north-central Texas, Geosci. Man 8: 103–129.Google Scholar
  98. Tyler, J. C., 1980, Osteology, phylogeny, and higher classification of the fishes of the order Plectognathi ( Tetraodontiformes ), NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. 434.Google Scholar
  99. Vermeij, G. J., 1975, Evolution and distribution of left-handed and planispiral coiling in snails, Nature (London) 254: 419–420.Google Scholar
  100. Vermeij, G. J., 1976, Interoceanic differences in vulnerability of shelled prey to crab predation, Nature (London) 260: 135–136.Google Scholar
  101. Vermeij, G. J., 1977a, Patterns in crab claw size: The geography of crushing, Syst. Zool. 26: 138–151.Google Scholar
  102. Vermeij, G. J., 1977, The Mesozoic marine revolution: Evidence from snails, predators and grazers, Paleobiology 3: 245–258.Google Scholar
  103. Vermeij, G. J., 1978, Biogeography and Adaptation: Patterns of Marine Life, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  104. Vermeij, G. J., 1979, Shell architecture and causes of death in Micronesian reef snails, Evolution 33: 686–696.Google Scholar
  105. Vermeij, G. J., 1982a, Gastropod shell form, repair, and breakage in relation to predation by the crab Calappa, Malacologia 23: 1–12.Google Scholar
  106. Vermeij, G. J., 1982b, Unsuccessful predation and evolution, Am. Nat., 120:701–720Google Scholar
  107. Vermeij, G. J., 1983, Coevolution and intimate associations in the sea.Google Scholar
  108. Vermeij, G. J., and Covich, A. P., 1978, Coevolution of freshwater gastropods and their predators, Am. Nat. 112: 833–843.Google Scholar
  109. Vermeij, G. J., and Currey, J. D., 1980, Geographical variation in the strength of thaidid snail shells, Biol. Bull. 158: 383–389.Google Scholar
  110. Vermeij, G. J., and Dudley, E. C., 1982, Shell repair in some gastropods from the Ripley Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of the southeastern United States, Cret. Res. 3: 397–403.Google Scholar
  111. Vermeij, G. J., Zipser, E., and Dudley, E. C., 1980, Predation in time and space: Peeling and drilling in terebrid gastropods, Paleobiology 6: 352–364.Google Scholar
  112. Vermeij, G. J., Shindel, D. E., Zipser, E., 1981, Predation through geological time: evidence from gastropod shell repair, Science 214: 1024–1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Vermeij, G. J., Zipser, E., and Zardini, R., 1982, Breakage-induced shell repair in some gastropods from the Upper Triassic of Italy, J. Paleontol. 56: 233–235.Google Scholar
  114. von Hüne, F. R., 1956, Paldontologie and Phylogenie der niederen Tetrapoden, Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  115. Waller, T. R., 1972, The functional significance of some shell microstructures in the Pectinacea (Mollusca: Bivalvia), Int. Geol. Congr., 24th Session, Montreal, Canada, Sect. 7, Paleontol. pp. 48–56.Google Scholar
  116. Ward, P., 1981, Shell sculpture as a defensive adaptation in ammonoids, Paleobiology 7: 95–100.Google Scholar
  117. Warmke, G. L., and Almodòvar, L. R., 1963, Some associations of marine mollusks and algae in Puerto Rico, Malacologia 1: 163–178.Google Scholar
  118. Warren, S., 1916, The feeding habits of Busycon, Nautilus 30: 66–68.Google Scholar
  119. Wells, H. W., 1958, Predation of pelecypods and gastropods by Fasciolaria hunteria (Perry), Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb. 8: 152–166.Google Scholar
  120. Woodring, W. P., 1957, Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: Geology and description of Tertiary mollusks (gastropods: Trochidae to Turritellidae), U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 306: 1–145.Google Scholar
  121. Woodring, W. P., 1959, Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: Description of Tertiary mollusks (gastropods: Vermetidae to Thaididael, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 306: 147–239.Google Scholar
  122. Woodring, W. P., 1964, Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: Description of Tertiary mollusks (gastropods: Columbellidae to Volutidae), U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 306: 241–297.Google Scholar
  123. Woodring, W. P., 1970, Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: Description of Tertiary mollusks (gastropods: Eulimidae, Marginellidae to Helminthoglyptidae), U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 306D: 299–452.Google Scholar
  124. Woodring, W. P., 1973, Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: Description of Tertiary mollusks (additions to gastropods, scaphopods, pelecypods: Nuculidae to Malleidae), U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 306E: 453–539.Google Scholar
  125. Yamaguchi, M., 1977, Shell growth and mortality rates in the coral reef gastropod Cerithium nodulosum in Pago Bay, Guam, Mariana Islands, Mar. Biol. 44: 249–263.Google Scholar
  126. Yamaoka, K., 1978, Pharyngeal jaw structure in labrid fish, Bull. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 14: 409–426.Google Scholar
  127. Yap, W. G., 1977, Population biology of Japanese little-neck clam, Tapes philippinarum, in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, Pac. Sci. 31: 223–244.Google Scholar
  128. Yochelson, E. L., 1971, A new Late Devonian gastropod and its bearing on problems of open coiling and septation, Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. 3: 231–241.Google Scholar
  129. Zach, R., 1978, Selection and dropping of whelks by northwestern crows, Behaviour 67: 134–148.Google Scholar
  130. Zach, R., 1979, Shell dropping: Decision-making and optimal foraging in northwestern crows, Behaviour 68: 106–116.Google Scholar
  131. Zardini, R., 1978, Fossili cassiani (Trias Medio-Superiore): Atlantae dei gastropodi della formazione di S. Cassiano raccolti nella regione dolomitica attorno a Cortina d’Ampezzo, Ghedina, Cortina d’Ampezzo.Google Scholar
  132. Zardini, R., 1980, Fossili cassiani (Trias Medio-Superiore): Primo aggiornamento all’atlante dei gastropodi della formazione di S. Cassiano raccolti nella regione dolomitica attorno a Cortina d’Ampezzo, Ghedina, Cortina d’Ampezzo.Google Scholar
  133. Zipser, E., and Vermeij, G. J., 1978, Crushing behavior of tropical and temperate crabs, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 31: 155–172.Google Scholar
  134. Zipser, E., and Vermeij, G. J., 1980, Survival after nonlethal shell damage in the gastropod Conus sponsalis, Micronesica (J. Coll . Guam) 16: 229–234.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geerat J. Vermeij
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations