Biotic Interactions in Recent Marine Sedimentary Environments

  • Sarah Ann Woodin
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 3)


Explanation of patterns of the distribution and abundance of organisms is the primary intellectual domain of the ecologist and often of the paleoecologist. Regardless of the investigative techniques employed, the patterns are usually explained by invoking physical or biotic factors or some combination of the two. Investigators in the Recent may then attempt to substantiate their hypothesis by manipulating the assemblage in some way (see Connell, 1975, for examples) or by observing the behaviors of the organisms (see Morse, 1980). Here I attempt to present a partial summary of the evidence from the Recent that suggests that biotic factors are important and that particular patterns may be associated with the importance of these factors. I will ignore physical factors due to lack of space.


Biotic Interaction Trace Fossil Bimodal Size Distribution Marine Benthos Spionid Polychaete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alberstadt, I. P., and Walker, K. R., 1976, A receptaculitidechinoderm pioneer community in a Middle Ordovician reef, Lethaia 9: 261–272.Google Scholar
  2. Allee, W. C., Emerson, A. E., Park, O., Park, T., and Schmidt, K. P., 1949, Principles of Animal Ecology, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  3. Aller, R. C., 1978, The effects of animal—sediment interactions on geological processes near the sediment—water interface, in: Estuarine Interactions ( M. L. Wiley, ed.), pp. 157–172, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Alpert, S. P., 1975, Planolites and Skolithos from the Upper Precambrian—Lower Cambrian, White—Inyo Mountains, California, J. Paleontol. 49: 508–521.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. J., and Kendziorek, M., 1982, Spacing patterns in terebellid polychaetes, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 58: 193–205.Google Scholar
  6. Berg, C. J., Jr., and Nishenko, S., 1975, Stereotypy of predatory boring behavior of Pleistocene naticid gastropods, Paleobiology 1: 258–260.Google Scholar
  7. Bergstrom, J., 1972, Appendage morphology of the trilobite Cryptolithus and its implications, Lethaia 5: 85–94.Google Scholar
  8. Bernstein, B. B., Hessler, R. R., Smith, R., and Jumars, P. A., 1978, Spatial dispersion of benthic Foraminifera in the abyssal central North Pacific, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 401–416.Google Scholar
  9. Bold, H. C., and Wynne, M. J., 1978, Introduction to the Algae, Prentice—Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  10. Boyer, L. F., 1978, The production, stability, and initial preservation of Recent trace fossils, Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Progr. 10: 370.Google Scholar
  11. Bradley, W. H., and Cooke, P., 1959, Living and ancient populations of the clam Gemma gemma in a Maine coast tidal flat, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Fish. Bull. No. 137, 58: 305–334.Google Scholar
  12. Brafield, A. E., 1978, Life in Sandy Shores, Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  13. Brasier, M. D., 1975, An outline history of seagrass communities, Palaeontology 18: 681–702.Google Scholar
  14. Brenchley, G. A., 1978, On the regulation of marine infaunal assemblages at the morphological level: A study of the interactions between sediment stabilizers, destabilizers and their sedimentary environment, Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  15. Brenchley, G. A., 1981, Disturbance and community structure: An experimental study of bioturbation in marine soft-bottom environments, J. Mar. Res. 39: 767–790.Google Scholar
  16. Brenchley, G. A., 1982, Mechanisms of spatial competition in marine soft bottom communities, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 60: 17–33.Google Scholar
  17. Brenchley, G. A., and Tidball, J. G., 1980, Tube-cap orientations of Diopatra cuprea (Bosc) (Polychaeta): The compromise between physiology and foraging, Mar. Behay. Physiol. 7: 1–13.Google Scholar
  18. Brett, C. E., 1978, Attachment structures in the rhombiferan cystoid Caryocrinites and their paleobiological implications, J. Paleontol. 52: 717–726.Google Scholar
  19. Brett, C. E., and Liddell, W. D., 1978, Preservation and paleoecology of a Middle Ordovician hardground community, Paleobiology 4: 329–348.Google Scholar
  20. Burbanck, W. D., Pierce, M. E., and Whiteley, G. C., Jr., 1956, A study of the bottom fauna of Rand’s Harbor, Massachusetts: An application of the ecotone concept, Ecol. Monogr. 26: 213–243.Google Scholar
  21. Byers, C. W., and Stasko, L. E., 1978, Trace fossils and sedimentologic interpretation—McGregor member of Platteville Formation (Ordovician) of Wisconsin, J. Sediment. Petrol. 48: 1303–1310.Google Scholar
  22. Cadée, G. C., 1976, Sediment reworking by Arenicola marina on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea, Neth. J. Sea Res. 10: 440–460.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, R. E., 1969, Systematics and phylogeny: Annelida, Echiura, Sipuncula, in: Chemical Zoology, Vol. 4 ( M. Florkin and B. Scheer, eds.), pp. 1–68, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, R. B., 1979, Radiation of the Metazoa, in: The Origin of Major Invertebrate Groups ( M. R. House, ed.), pp. 55–102, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Connell, J. H., 1963, Territorial behavior and dispersion in some marine invertebrates, Res. Popul. Ecol. 5: 87–101.Google Scholar
  26. Connell, J. H., 1975, Some mechanisms producing structure in natural communities: A model and evidence from field experiments, in: Ecology and Evolution of Communities ( M. L. Cody and J. M. Diamond, eds.), pp. 460–490, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  27. Conway Morris, S., 1979a, Middle Cambrian polychaetes from the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 285: 227–274.Google Scholar
  28. Conway Morris, S., 1979b, The Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian) fauna, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10: 327–349.Google Scholar
  29. Crisp, D. J. (ed.), 1964, An assessment of plankton grazing by barnacles, in: Grazing in Terrestrial and Marine Environments, pp. 257–264, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  30. Dauer, D. M., Maybury, C. A., and Ewing, R. M., 1981, Feeding behavior and general ecology of several spionid polychaetes from the Chesapeake Bay, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 54: 2138.Google Scholar
  31. Dayton, P. K., 1971, Competition, disturbance, and community organization: The provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community, Ecol. Monogr. 41: 351–389.Google Scholar
  32. Dempster, J. P., 1975, Animal Population Ecology, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. de Vlas, J., 1979a, Annual food intake by plaice and flounder in a tidal flat area in the Dutch Wadden Sea, with special reference to consumption of regenerating parts of macrobenthic prey, Neth. J. Sea Res. 13: 117–153.Google Scholar
  34. de Vlas, J., 1979b, Secondary production by tail regeneration in a tidal flat population of lugworms (Arenicola marina), cropped by flatfish, Neth. J. Sea Res. 13: 362–393.Google Scholar
  35. Eckman, J. E., 1979, Small-scale patterns and processes in a soft-substratum, intertidal community, J. Mar. Res. 37: 437–457.Google Scholar
  36. Eckman, J. E., Nowell, A. R. M., and Jumars, P. A., 1981, Sediment destabilization by animal tubes, J. Mar. Res. 39: 361–374.Google Scholar
  37. Edwards, R. R. C., Steele, J. H., and Trevallion, A., 1970, The ecology of O-group plaice and common dabs in Loch Ewe. III. Prey–predator experiments with plaice, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 4: 156–173.Google Scholar
  38. Eltringham, S. K., 1971, Life in Mud and Sand, The English Universities Press, London. Evans, S. M., 1973, A study of fighting reactions in some nereid polychaetes, Anim. Behay. 21: 138–146.Google Scholar
  39. Fauchald, K., 1974, Polychaete phylogeny: A problem in protostome evolution, Syst. Zool. 23: 493–506.Google Scholar
  40. Featherstone, R. P., and Risk, M. J., 1977, Effect of tube-building polychaetes on intertidal sediments of the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, J. Sediment. Petrol. 47: 446–450.Google Scholar
  41. Fisher, D. C., 1975, Evolution and functional morphology of the Xiphosurida, Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  42. Frey, R. W. (ed.), 1975, The realm of ichnology, its strengths and limitations, in: The Study of Trace Fossils, pp. 13–38, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  43. Gause, G. F., 1934, The Struggle for Existence, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  44. Gebelein, C. D., 1969, Distribution, morphology, and accretion rate of Recent subtidal algal stromatolites, Bermuda, J. Sediment. Petrol. 39: 49–69.Google Scholar
  45. Gibbs, P. E., 1968, Observations on the population of Scoloplos armiger at Whitstable, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 48: 225–254.Google Scholar
  46. Gilman, J. P., 1979, Variation in life history parameters of Macoma balthica (L.): Evolutionary adaptations to ecological processes, Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  47. Glaessner, M. F., 1976, Early Phanerozoic annelid worms and their geological and biological significance, J. Geol. Soc. London 132: 259–275.Google Scholar
  48. Hairston, N. G., 1980, The experimental test of an analysis of field distributions: Competition in terrestrial salamanders, Ecology 61: 817–826.Google Scholar
  49. Hancock, D. A., 1970, The role of predators and parasites in a fishery for the mollusc Cardium edule L., in: Proc. Adv. Study Inst. Dynamics Numbers Popul. (Oosterbeck, 1970) ( P. J. den Boer and G. R. Gradwell, eds.), pp. 298–312, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  50. Harland, W. B., Holland, C. H., House, M. R., Hughes, N. F., Reynolds, A. B., Rudwick, M. J. S., Satterthwaite, G. F., Tarlo, L. B. H., and Willey, E. C., 1967, The Fossil Record: A Symposium with Documentation, Geological Society of. London, London.Google Scholar
  51. Highsmith, R. C., 1982, Induced settlement and metamorphosis of sand dollar (Dendraster excentricus) larvae in predator-free sites: Adult sand dollar beds, Ecology 63: 329–337.Google Scholar
  52. Holme, N. A., 1950, Population-dispersion in Tellina tenuis Da Costa, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 29: 267–280.Google Scholar
  53. Holme, N. A., and McIntyre, A. D., 1971, Methods for the Study of Marine Benthos, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  54. Howard, J. D., Mayou, T. V., and Heard, R. W., 1977, Biogenic sedimentary structures formed by rays, J. Sediment. Petrol. 47: 339–346.Google Scholar
  55. Howell, B. F., 1962, Worms, in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part W, Miscellanea ( R. C. Moore, ed.), pp. W144 — W177, Geological Society of America, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Jackson, J. B. C., 1977, Competition on marine hard substrata: The adaptive significance of solitary and colonial strategies, Am. Nat. 111: 743–767.Google Scholar
  57. Jumars, P. A., 1975, Environmental grain and polychaete species’ diversity in a bathyal benthic community, Mar. Biol. 30: 253–266.Google Scholar
  58. Jumars, P. A., and Fauchald, K., 1977, Between community contrasts in successful polychaete feeding strategies, in: Ecology of Marine Benthos ( B. C. Coull, ed.), pp. 1–20, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  59. Kellogg, C. W., 1971, The role of gastropod shells in determining the pattern of distribution and abundance in hermit crabs, Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar
  60. Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., 1968, Scolecodonts versus jaw apparatuses, Lethaia 1:39–49. Kohn, A. J., 1959, The ecology of Conus in Hawaii, Ecol. Monogr. 29: 47–90.Google Scholar
  61. Kohn, A. J., and Nybakken, J. W., 1975, Ecology of Conus on eastern Indian Ocean fringing reefs: Diversity of species and resource utilization, Mar. Biol. 29: 211–234.Google Scholar
  62. Korringa, P., 1941, Experiments and observations on swarming, pelagic life and settling in the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis L., Arch. Neerl. Zool. 5: 1–249.Google Scholar
  63. Kristensen, I., 1957, Differences in density and growth in a cockle population in the Dutch Wadden Sea, Arch. Neerl. Zool. 12: 350–453.Google Scholar
  64. Kuris, A. M., 1974, Trophic interactions: Similarity of parasitic castrators to parasitoids, Q. Rev. Biol. 49: 129–148.Google Scholar
  65. Levin, L. A., 1981, Dispersion, feeding behavior and competition in two spionid polychaetes, J. Mar. Res. 39: 99–117.Google Scholar
  66. Levings, C. D., 1972, A study of temporal change in a marine benthic community, with particular reference to predation by Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) (Pisces, Pleuronectidae), Ph.D. dissertation, Dalhousie University.Google Scholar
  67. Levinton, J. S., 1977, Ecology of shallow water deposit-feeding communities: Quisset Harbor, Massachusetts, in: Ecology of Marine Benthos ( B. C. Coull, ed.), pp. 191–227, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  68. Levinton, J. S., 1979, Deposit-feeders, their resources, and the study of resource limitation, in: Ecological Processes in Coastal and Marine Systems (R. J. Livingston, ed.), pp. 117141, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Levinton, J. S., and Bambach, R. K., 1975, A comparative study of Silurian and recent deposit-feeding bivalve communities, Paleobiology 1: 97–124.Google Scholar
  70. Levinton, J. S., and Lopez, G. R., 1977, A model of renewable resources and limitation of deposit-feeding bivalve communities, Oecologia (Berlin) 31: 177–190.Google Scholar
  71. Lubchenco, J., 1980, Algal zonation in the New England rocky intertidal community: An experimental analysis, Ecology 61: 333–344.Google Scholar
  72. McCaffrey, R. J., Myers, A. C., Davey, E., Morrison, G., Bender, M., Luedtke, N., Cullen, D., Froelich, P., and Klinkhammer, G., 1980, The relation between porewater chemistry and benthic fluxes of nutrients and manganese in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 31–44.Google Scholar
  73. McCall, P. L., 1977, Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound, J. Mar. Res. 35: 221–266.Google Scholar
  74. McDermott, J. J., 1976, Predation of the razor clam Ensis directus by the nemertean worm Cerebratulus lacteus, Chesapeake Sci. 17: 299–301.Google Scholar
  75. Macer, C. T., 1967, The food web in Red Wharf Bay (North Wales) with particular reference to young plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 15: 560–573.Google Scholar
  76. Mangum, C. P., 1964, Studies on speciation in maldanid polychaetes of the North American Atlantic coast. II. Distribution and competitive interaction of five sympatric species, Limnol. Oceanogr. 9: 12–26.Google Scholar
  77. Mangum, C. P., Santos, S. L., and Rhodes, W. R., Jr., 1968, Distribution and feeding in the onuphid polychaete, Diopatra cuprea (Bosc), Mar. Biol. 2: 33–40.Google Scholar
  78. Mills, E. L., 1967, The biology of an ampeliscid amphipod crustacean sibling species pair, J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 24: 305–355.Google Scholar
  79. Morse, D. H., 1980, Behavioral Mechanisms in Ecology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  80. Moy-Thomas, J. A., and Miles, R. S., 1971, Palaeozoic Fishes, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  81. Myers, A. C., 1977a, Sediment processing in a marine subtidal sandy bottom community. I. Physical aspects, J. Mar. Res. 35: 609–632.Google Scholar
  82. Myers, A. C., 1977b, Sediment processing in a marine subtidal sandy bottom community. II. Biological consequences, J. Mar. Res. 35: 633–647.Google Scholar
  83. Newell, R. C., 1970, Biology of Intertidal Animals, American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Nichols, F. H., 1975, Dynamics and energetics of three deposit-feeding benthic invertebrate populations in Puget Sound, Washington, Ecol. Monogr. 45: 57–82.Google Scholar
  85. Nichols, F. H., 1977, Dynamics and production of Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) in Kiel Bay, West Germany, in: Biology of Benthic Organisms ( B. F. Keegan, P. O’Ceidigh, and P. J. S. Boaden, eds.), pp. 453–463, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, N.Y.Google Scholar
  86. Nielsen, C., 1975, Observations on Buccinum undutum L. attacking bivalves and on prey responses, with a short review of attack methods of other prosobranchs, Ophelia 13: 87108.Google Scholar
  87. Ockelmann, K. W., and Vahl, O., 1970, On the biology of the polychaete Glycera alba, especially its burrowing and feeding, Ophelia 8: 275–294.Google Scholar
  88. Orth, R., 1975, Destruction of eelgrass, Zostera marina, by the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, in the Chesapeake Bay, Chesapeake Sci. 16: 205–208.Google Scholar
  89. Orth, R., 1977, The importance of sediment stability in seagrass communities, in: Ecology of Marine Benthos ( B. C. Coull, ed.), pp. 281–300, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  90. Oug, E., 1980, On feeding and behaviour of Ophiodromus flexuosus (Delle Chiaje) and Nereimyra punctata (O. F. Muller) (Polychaeta, Hesionidae), Ophelia 19: 175–191.Google Scholar
  91. Paine, R. T., 1971, A short-term experimental investigation of resource partitioning in a New Zealand rocky intertidal habitat, Ecology 52: 1096–1106.Google Scholar
  92. Paine, R. T., 1974, Intertidal community structure: Experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator, Oecologia (Berlin) 15: 93120.Google Scholar
  93. Palmer, T. J., 1978, Burrows at certain omission surfaces in the Middle Ordovician of the Upper Mississippi Valley, J. Paleontol. 52: 109–117.Google Scholar
  94. Petersen, C. G. J., 1915, On the animal communities of the sea bottom in the Skagerak, the Christiania Fjord and the Danish waters, Rep. Dan. Biol. Stn. 23: 3–28.Google Scholar
  95. Peterson, C. H., 1977, Competitive organization of the soft-bottom macrobenthic communities of southern California lagoons, Mar. Biol. 43: 343–359.Google Scholar
  96. Peterson, C. H., 1979, Predation, competitive exclusion, and diversity in the soft-sediment benthic communities of estuaries and lagoons, in: Ecological Processes in Coastal and Marine Systems ( R. J. Livingston, ed.), pp. 233–264, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Peterson, C. H., and Andre, S. V., 1980, An experimental analysis of interspecific competition among marine filter feeders in a soft-sediment environment, Ecology 61: 129–139.Google Scholar
  98. Phillips, R. C., 1960, Observations on the ecology and distribution of the Florida seagrasses, Prof. Pap. Ser. 2, Fla. State Board Conserv., St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  99. Piper, D. J. W., and Marshall, N. F., 1969, Bioturbation of Holocene sediments on La Jolla deep sea fan, California, J. Sediment. Petrol. 39: 601–606.Google Scholar
  100. Platt, W. J., 1975, The colonization and formation of equilibrium plant species associations on badger disturbances in a tall-grass prairie, Ecol. Monogr. 45: 285–305.Google Scholar
  101. Powell, E. N., 1977, The relationship of the trace fossil Gyrolithes (= Xenohelix) to the family Capitellidae (Polychaeta), J. Paleontol. 51: 552–556.Google Scholar
  102. Reise, K., 1977a, Predation pressure and community structure of an intertidal soft-bottom fauna, in: Biology of Benthic Organisms ( B. F. Keegan, P. O’Ceidigh, and P. J. S. Boaden, eds.), pp. 513–519, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, N.Y.Google Scholar
  103. Reise, K., 1977b, Predator exclusion experiments in an intertidal mud flat, Helgol. bliss. Meeresunters. 30: 263–271.Google Scholar
  104. Reise, K., 1979, Spatial configurations generated by motile benthic polychaetes, Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 32: 55–72.Google Scholar
  105. Reish, D. J., 1959, A discussion of the importance of the screen size, Ecology 40:307–309. Reish, D. J., and Alosi, M. C., 1968, Aggressive behavior in the polychaetous annelid family Nereidae, Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 67: 21–28.Google Scholar
  106. Rhoads, D. C., 1963, Rates of sediment reworking by Yoldia Iimatula in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, and Long Island Sound, J. Sediment. Petrol. 33: 723–727.Google Scholar
  107. Rhoads, D. C., 1967, Biogenic reworking of intertidal and subtidal sediments in Barnstable Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, J. Geol. 75: 461–476.Google Scholar
  108. Rhoads, D. C., 1974, Organism—sediment relations on the muddy sea floor, in: Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. ( H. Barnes, ed.), pp. 263–300, Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  109. Rhoads, D. C., and Stanley, D. J., 1965, Biogenic graded bedding, J. Sediment. Petrol. 35: 956–963.Google Scholar
  110. Rhoads, D. C., and Young, D. K., 1970, The influence of deposit-feeding organisms on sediment stability and community trophic structure, J. Mar. Res. 28: 150–178.Google Scholar
  111. Rhoads, D. C., and Young, D. K., 1971, Animal—sediment relations in Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts. II. Reworking by Molpadia oolitica (Holothuroidea), Mar. Biol. 11: 255–261.Google Scholar
  112. Rhoads, D. C., Yingst, J. Y., and Ullman, W. J., 1978, Seafloor stability in central Long Island Sound. Part I. Temporal changes in erodability of fine-grained sediment, in: Estuarine Interactions ( M. L. Wiley, ed.), pp. 221–244, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  113. Richards, L., 1969, Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) of San Juan Island, “Zoology 533 Report,” Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  114. Riding, R., and Toomey, D. F., 1972, The sedimentological role of Epiphyton and Renalcis in Lower Ordovician mounds, southern Oklahoma, J. Paleontol. 46: 509–519.Google Scholar
  115. Risk, M. J., and Tunnicliffe, V. J., 1978, Intertidal spiral burrows: Paraonic fulgens and Spiophanes wigleyi in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, J. Sediment. Petrol. 48: 1287 1292.Google Scholar
  116. Roe, P., 1970, The nutrition of Paranemertes peregrine (Rhynchocoela: Hoplonemertea). I. Studies on food and feeding behavior, Biol. Bull. 139: 80–91.Google Scholar
  117. Roe, P., 1975, Aspects of life history and of territorial behavior in young individuals of Platynereis bicanaliculata and Nereis vexillosa (Annelida, Polychaeta), Pac. Sci. 29: 341–348.Google Scholar
  118. Roe, P., 1976, Life history and predator—prey interactions of the nemertean Paranemertes peregrine Coe, Biol. Bull. 150: 80–106.Google Scholar
  119. Romer, A. S., 1966, Vertebrate Paleontology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  120. Ronan, T. E., 1975, Structural and paleo-ecological aspects of a modern marine soft-sediment community: An experimental field study, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  121. Rudwick, M. J. S., 1970, Living and Fossil Brachiopods, Hutchinson University Library, London.Google Scholar
  122. Sanders, H. L., 1958, Benthic studies in Buzzards Bay. I. Animal—sediment relationships, Limnol. Oceanogr. 3: 245–258.Google Scholar
  123. Sanders, H. L., 1960, Benthic studies in Buzzards Bay. III. The structure of the soft-bottom community, Limnol. Oceanogr. 5: 138–153.Google Scholar
  124. Sastry, A. N., 1979, Pelecypoda (excluding Ostreidae), in: Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Vol. V, Molluscs: Pelecypods and Lesser Classes ( A. C. Giese and J. S. Pearse, eds.), pp. 113–292, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Schroeder, P. C., and Hermans, C. O., 1975, Annelida: Polychaeta, in: Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Vol. III, Annelids and Echiurans ( A. C. Giese and J. S. Pearse, eds.), pp. 1–213, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Segerstrale, S. G., 1962, Investigations on Baltic populations of the bivalve Macoma baltica (L.). Part II. What are the reasons for the periodic failure of recruitment and the scarcity of Macoma in the deeper waters of the inner Baltic?, Soc. Sci. Fenn. Comm. Biol. 24: 326.Google Scholar
  127. Seilacher, A., 1977, Evolution of trace fossil communities, in: Patterns of Evolution ( A. Hallam, ed.), pp. 359–376, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  128. Shelford, V. E., Weese, A. O., Rice, L. A., Rasmussen, D. I., and MacLean, A., 1935, Some marine biotic communities of the Pacific coast of North America. Part I. General survey of the communities, Ecol. MIonogr. 5: 249–332.Google Scholar
  129. Shimek, R. L., 1977, Resource utilization and natural history of some northeastern Pacific Turridae, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  130. Shourd, M. L., and Levin, H. L., 1976, Chondrites in the upper Plattin subgroup (Middle Ordovician) of eastern Missouri, J. Paleontol. 50: 260–268.Google Scholar
  131. Slobodkin, L. B., 1961, Growth and Regulation of Animal Populations, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  132. Stanley, S. M., 1968, Post-Paleozoic adaptive radiation of infaunal bivalve molluscs—A consequence of mantle fusion and siphon formation, J. Paleontol. 42: 214–229.Google Scholar
  133. Stanley, S. M., 1975, Adaptive themes in the evolution of the Bivalvia (Mollusca), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 3: 361–385.Google Scholar
  134. Swinchatt, J. P., 1965, Significance of constituent composition, texture, and skeletal breakdown in some Recent carbonate sediments, J. Sediment. Petrol. 35: 71–90.Google Scholar
  135. Tenore, K. R., 1977, Food chain pathways in detrital feeding benthic communities: A review, with new observations on sediment resuspension and detrital recycling, in: Ecology of Marine Benthos ( B. C. Coull, ed.), pp. 37–53, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  136. Thayer, C. W., 1979, Biological bulldozers and the evolution of marine benthic communities, Science 203: 458–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Thorson, G., 1957, Bottom communities (sublittoral or shallow shelf), in: Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology (J. W. Hedgpeth, ed.), Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 67: 461–535.Google Scholar
  138. Thorson, G., 1971, Life in the Sea, World University Library, New York.Google Scholar
  139. Trevallion, A., Edwards, R. R. C., and Steele, J. H., 1970, Dynamics of a benthic bivalve, in: Marine Food Chains ( J. H. Steele, ed.), pp. 285–295, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  140. VanBlaricom, G. R., 1978, Disturbance, predation, and resource allocation in a high-energy sublittoral sand-bottom ecosystem: Experimental analyses of critical structuring processes for the infaunal community, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
  141. Vermeij, G. J., 1977, The Mesozoic marine revolution: Evidence from snails, predators and grazers, Paleobiology 3: 245–258.Google Scholar
  142. Virnstein, R. W., 1977, The importance of predation by crabs and fishes on benthic infauna in Chesapeake Bay, Ecology 58: 1199–1217.Google Scholar
  143. Warme, J. E., 1967, Graded bedding in the recent sediments of Mugu Lagoon, California, J. Sediment. Petrol. 37: 540–547.Google Scholar
  144. Watkins, R., 1978, Bivalve ecology in a Silurian shelf environment, Lethaia 11: 41–56.Google Scholar
  145. Watkins, R., and Hurst, J. M., 1977, Community relations of Silurian crinoids at Dudley, England, Paleobiology 3: 207–217.Google Scholar
  146. Whitlatch, R. B., 1976, Seasonality, species diversity and patterns of resource utilization in a deposit-feeding community, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  147. Whitlatch, R. B., 1980, Patterns of resource utilization and coexistence in marine intertidal deposit-feeding communities, J. Mar. Res. 38: 743–765.Google Scholar
  148. Whittington, H. B., 1979, Early arthropods, their appendages and relationships, in: “l’he Origin of Major Invertebrate Groups ( M. R. House, ed.), pp. 253–268, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  149. Williams, J. G., 1980, The influence of adults on the settlement of spat of the clam, Tapes japonica, J. Mar. Res. 38: 729–741.Google Scholar
  150. Wilson, D. P., 1971, Sabellaria colonies at Duckpool, North Cornwall, 1961–1970, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 51: 509–580.Google Scholar
  151. Wilson, W. H., Jr., 1978, Community structure and species diversity of the sedimentary reefs constructed by Petaloproctus socialis (Polychaeta: Maldanidae), J. Mar. Res. 37: 623641.Google Scholar
  152. Wilson, W. H., Jr., 1980, A laboratory investigation of the effect of a terebellid polychaete on the survivorship of nereid polychaete larvae, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 46: 73–80.Google Scholar
  153. Wilson, W. H., Jr., 1981, Sediment-mediated interactions in a densely populated infaunal assemblage: The effects of the polychaete Arenicola pacifica, J. Mar. Res. 39: 735–748.Google Scholar
  154. Wiltse, W. I., 1980, Effects of Polinices duplicatus (Gastropoda: Naticidae) on infaunal cornmunity structure at Barnstable Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Mar. Biol. 56: 301–310.Google Scholar
  155. Wiman, S. K., and McKendree, W. G., 1975, Distribution of Halimeda plants and sediments on and around a patch reef near Old Rhodes Key, Florida, J. Sediment. Petrol. 45: 415–421.Google Scholar
  156. Witte, F., and DeWilde, P. A. W. J., 1979, On the ecological relation between Nereis diversicolor and juvenile Arenicola marina, Neth. J. Sea Res. 13: 394–405.Google Scholar
  157. Woodin, S. A., 1974, Polychaete abundance patterns in a marine soft-sediment environment: The importance of biological interactions, Ecol. Monogr. 44: 171–187.Google Scholar
  158. Woodin, S. A., 1976, Adult—larval interactions in dense infaunal assemblages: Patterns of abundance, J. Mar. Res. 34: 25–41.Google Scholar
  159. Woodin, S. A., 1977, Algal “gardening” behavior by nereid polychaetes: Effects on soft-bottom community structure, Mar. Biol. 44: 39–42.Google Scholar
  160. Woodin, S. A., 1978, Refuges, disturbance, and community structure: A marine soft-bottom example, Ecology 59: 274–284.Google Scholar
  161. Woodin, S. A., 1981, Disturbance and community structure in a shallow water sand flat, Ecology 62: 1052–1066.Google Scholar
  162. Woodin, S. A., 1982, Browsing: Important in marine sedimentary environments? Spionid polychaete examples, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 60: 35–45.Google Scholar
  163. Woodin, S. A., and Jackson, J. B. C., 1979, Interphyletic competition among marine benthos, Am. Zool. 19: 1029–1043.Google Scholar
  164. Yingst, J. Y., and Rhoads, D. C., 1978,Seafloor stability in central Long Island Sound. Part II. Biological interactions and their potential importance for seafloor erodability, in: Estuarine Interactions (M. L. Wiley, ed.), pp. 245–260,Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  165. Young, D. K., and Rhoads, D. C., 1971, Animal—sediment relations in Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts. I. A transect study, Mar. Biol. 11: 242–254.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Ann Woodin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations