Fermentation Per Se as a Biological Slow Delivery Mechanism for Releasing Cofactors of Fruit Fly Attractants

  • Irving Keiser
  • Nobel Wakabayashi


Hawaii is the only place where three of the world’s most serious agricultural pests, the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel), the melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett), and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata [Wiedemann]), occur together. These insects are highly destructive pests of fruits and vegetables and of many nuts and flowers. Collectively, they attack more than 200 different hosts in Hawaii. In addition, a constant hazard exists that one or more of these destructive fruit flies may be introduced into the continental United States, despite constant and rigid quarantines, because of increased tourist travel and world trade. The melon fly is thought to have been introduced into Hawaii about 1895, probably from Japan. The Mediterranean fruit fly was introduced about 1910, probably from Australia, and the oriental fruit fly about 1944, probably from Saipan. The Mediterranean fruit fly and the oriental fruit fly are major pests of citrus fruits, mangoes, guavas, peaches, apricots, coffee, English walnuts, breadfruit, bananas, papayas, cantaloupes, and many other hosts, while the melon fly is the vegetable grower’s worst pest, attacking tomatoes and cucurbits. For many years we have had an ongoing research program to develop new and better fruit fly lures that could be used for detection, survey, and control of these insects.


Linolenic Acid Protein Insecticide Proprietary Product Ongoing Research Program Destructive Pest 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irving Keiser
    • 1
  • Nobel Wakabayashi
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Department of Agriculture Science and Education AdministrationTropical Fruit and Vegetable Research LaboratoryHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Department of Agriculture Science and Education AdministrationBiologically Active Natural Products Laboratory Agricultural Environmental Quality InstituteBeltsvilleUSA

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