Alloys and Composites

  • Gilbert J. London


Beryllium alloys have been studied extensively with a view toward improving the ductility, strength, or toughness of the pure metal. Only a few alloying elements form substantive solid solutions in beryllium metal, i.e., copper, nickel, cobalt, and to a lesser extent iron. Silver has limited solid solubility in beryllium. Most solid-solution alloys are substantially stronger than the purified metal, i.e., metal from which microalloying-type impurities have been removed. Ductility improvement through solid-solution alloying, however, has not been realized and is not considered a likely product of future development studies.


Fracture Toughness Extrusion Direction Tensile Elongation Copper Addition Titanium Matrix Composite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Herman and G. E. Spangler, Metallurgy of Beryllium, pp. 28, 75, Institute of Metals, London (. 1961 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. London, V. V. Damiano, and H. Conrad, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 242, 979–986 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. V. Damian, G. London, and H. Conrad, Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 242, 987–994 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Carson and J. P. Denny, Solid Solution Strengthened Beryllium Alloy Sheet, F“°gal Report No. 112167, Contract No. NOW-66–0563-C, The Beryllium Co:rp., Reacirtg, n- sylvania (November 1967).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Taylor and C. Carson, Solid Solution Strengthened Beryllium Alloy Ingot Sheet, Report, Contract No. N00019–68-C-0019, The Beryllium Corp., Reading. Pennsylvania (November 1968).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. E. Evans, D. Beasley, and J. N. Lowe, Fabrication and Evaluation of Beryllium Ingot Sheet Alloyed with Copper and Silver, Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-68–135 (August 1968).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Aldinger and M. Wilhelm, Effect of Copper on Crack Propagation in Be Single Crystals, Max Planck Institute for Metailforshung, Stuttgart, Germany (February 1975).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Smugeresky, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, California, private communication.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. D. Scott and H. M. Lindsay, in: Beryllium Technology, Vol. 1 (L. MeD. Schetky and H. A. Johnson, eds.), pp. 145–178, AIME Metallurgical Society Conferences, Vol. 33, Gordon and Breach, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Morozumi, N. Tsuno, and S. Ioda, Trans. Japan Inst. Met. 10. 64 (1969).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Janot and P. Delcroix, Acta Metall. 20 (4), 637–643 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Janot and H. Gibert, Maier. Sci. Eng. 10(1), 23–31 (1972).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. J. Stonehouse and D. H. Woodard, Characteristics of Beryllium Antimony Alloys, Brush Beryllium Co. Report, presented at AIME Meeting, Detroit (October 1971).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. J. Stonehouse, Beryllium—Antimony Composition, U.S. Patent No. 3,574,608 (April 13, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. W. Fenn, Jr., D. D. Crooks, W. C. Cons, and E. E. Underwood, Properties and Behavior of Beryllium—Aluminum Alloys, in: Beryllium Technology, Vol. I (L. McD. Schetky and H. A. Johnson, eds.), pp. 108–143, AIME Metallurgical Society Conferences, Vol. 33, Gordon and Breach, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beryllium—Aluminum Alloy Extrusions Save Weight in Minuteman III Missile, Ind. Heat. 38, 666 (1971).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. J. Duba, A. C. Haramis, R F. Marks, L. Payne, and R. D., YE-12 Lockalloy Ventral Fin Program, Final Report, Vol. 1, NASA CR-144971 (January 9, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lockalloy, Alloy Digest, Filing Code, Beryllium Alloy Be-1 (September 1971), Engineering Alloys Digest, Upper Montclair, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. A. Specs et al.,Optimization and Design Criteria for BerylliumiTitanium Composites, Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors, Report No, EDR8600, Naval Air Systems Command, Contract No. N00019–74-C-0103 (September 1975).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. J. Kovacs and G. J. London, Synthesis and Material Characterization of Beryllium/ Ti-5A1–4V Composites, Metall. Trans., SA, 179–185 (January 1977).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. J. London, W. Taylor, and M. Herman, Co-Extruded Beryllium—Titanium Composites for Light Weight Structures, National SAMPE Technical Conference, Space Shuttle Materials (October 1971).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Isserow and F. J. Rizzitano, Titanium—Beryllium Microcomposites, A State-of-the-Art Review, Composites 5 (4), 141–150 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. R. Cox, Beryllium/Titanium Bimetal System, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Division, United Technologies Company, Report No. N00019–74-C-0117, Naval Air Systems Command Contract (September 1975).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. R. Sippel and M. Herman, Optimization and Design Criteria for Beryllium/Titanium Composites, Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors, Report No. EDR8159, Naval Air Systems Command Contract No. N00019–74–0. 0103 (March 1974).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. C. Goodwin and M. Herman, Structural Requirements of Compressor and Fan Blading of Beryllium Composite Materials, National Materials Advisory Board Conference on Beryllium, Washington, D.C. (March 1970).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    I. J. Toth, Comparison of the Mechanical Behavior of Flarnentary Reinforced Aluminum and Titanium Alloys, Contpos, Mater. [Proceedings of the Third Conference on Testing and Design, pp. 542–560, ASTM STP 546, American Society for Testing and Materials (1974)1.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. Mahiew and H. S. Schwartz, Time Dependent Mechanical Behavior of Beryllium Wire Reinforced Plastic Composites, Technical Report No. AFML-TR-66–404 Parts i and 2 (January 1967).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. C. Schyne, O. D. Sherby, and J. W. Moberly, Investigation of Beryllium with Added Dispersoids, AFML, Report No. TR-69–247, AD No. 863648 (October 1969).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilbert J. London
    • 1
  1. 1.Naval Air Development CenterWarminsterUSA

Personalised recommendations