Natural and Artificial Sources of Electromagnetic Fields in the Habitats of Organisms

  • A. S. Presman


In the earth’s atmosphere there is an electric field (Ee) in a direction normal to the earth’s surface so that this surface is negatively charged and the upper atmosphere is positively charged. The strength of this field depends on the geograpical latitude: It is greatest in central latitudes and decreases towards the equator and the poles. The accepted average value over the earth’s sphere is Ee = 130 V/m. With increase in distance from the Earth’s surface Ee decreases approximately exponentially and is about 5 V/m at a height of 9 km.


Diurnal Variation Magnetic Anomaly Radio Emission Magnetic Storm Television Station 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Presman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsMoscow UniversityMoscowUSSR

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