Quantitative Changes of Signs and Symptoms Associated with Acute Alcohol Withdrawal: Incidence, Severity and Circadian Effects in Experimental Studies of Alcoholics
A quantitative phenomenological approach to the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in man offers major advantages to the investigator and clinician that are not provided by the current nosology of the withdrawal. These advantages have been discussed at length elsewhere (Gross et al., 1974). A clinical instrument was developed for the purpose of a quantitative phenomenological assessment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the Total Severity Assessment of alcohol withdrawal (TSA). This instrument was based on a review of the literature, observations over thirteen years of approximately fifteen thousand patients in alcohol withdrawal, and extensive clinical trials, several of which have been reported (Gross et al., 1968, Gross et al., 1971a, Gross et al., 1971b, Gross et al., 1973, Gross et al., 1974). The TSA has been applied in experimental studies of intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholic volunteers. In an earlier communication, the prevalence of the signs and symptoms associated with acute alcohol withdrawal during experimental studies were reported (Gross and Lewis, 1973). This communication will examine the incidence and severity of the signs and symptoms during experimental studies of intoxication and withdrawal in an enlarged sample. Circadian effects on temperature changes will also be described.
KeywordsHeavy Drinking Alcohol Withdrawal Blood Alcohol Concentration Alcohol Intoxication Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
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