Abstract

Since the early demonstrations of the harmful effects of ammonia* on man and animals1–3 and of the liberation of ammonia by stimulated nerve tissue,4 a large literature concerned with the processes (operating both in vivo and in vitro) that are involved in the neural formation, transport, utilization, function, and toxicity of ammonia has accumulated. It indicates the dynamic nature of ammonia in the brain, its direct relationship to metabolism of glucose, amino acids, and proteins, its effects on cell energetics, its significant response to physiological change, its covert involvement in transmitter function, its influence on membrane properties and on cell morphology, and its implication at hyperconcentrations in convulsions and coma. Some of these aspects have been reviewed in the last two decades.3,5–14 In this chapter, an attempt will be made at collation and synthesis of some of the early and present knowledge of the field.

Keywords

Glutamine Synthetase Brain Slice Ammonium Salt Glutamic Dehydrogenase Citric Acid Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jacobson, C., 1910, Am. J. Physiol. 26: 407–412.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mathews, S. A., 1922, Am. J. Physiol. 59: 459–460.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McDermott, W. V., 1957, N. Engl. J. Med. 257: 1076–1081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tashiro, S., 1922, Am. J. Physiol. 60: 519–543.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kamin. H. (Chairman, Subcommittee on Ammonia), 1979, Ammonia, Committee on Medical and Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants, National Research Council, University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vrba, R., 1957, Rev. Czech. Med. 3: 1–26.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weil-Malherbe, H., 1962, Neurochemistry, 2nd ed. ( K. A. C. Elliot, I. H. Page, and J. H. Quastel, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 321–330.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsukada, Y., 1966, Prog. Brain Res. 21A: 268–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsukada, Y., 1971, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 5A (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 215–233.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schenker, S., Breen, K. J., and Hoyumpa, A. M., Jr., 1974, Gastroenterology 66: 121–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zieve, L., and Nicoloff, D. M., 1975, Annu. Rev. Med. 26: 143–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hsia, Y. E., 1974, Gastroenterology 67: 347–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Colombo, J. P., 1971, Congenital Disorders of the Urea Cycle and Ammonia Detoxication, Monographs in Paediatrics, Volume 1, S. Krager, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benjamin, A. M., 1972, Ammonia and Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport in the Brain in Vitro, Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burg, P. D. V., and Mook, H. W., 1963, Clin. Chim. Acta 8: 162–163.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Conway, E. J., 1957, Microdiffusion Analysis and Volumetric Error, C. Lockwood, London.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seligson, E., and Hirahara, K., 1957, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 49: 962–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hutchinson, J. H., and Labby, D. H., 1962, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 60: 170–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fenton, J. C. B., and Williams, A. H., 1968, J. Clin. Pathol. 21: 14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rubin, M., and Knott, L., 1967, Clin. Chim. Acta 18: 409–415.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaltwasser, H., and Schlegel, H. G., 1966, Anal. Biochem. 16: 132–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Folbergrova, J., Passoneau, J. V., and Lowry, O. H., 1969, J. Neurochem. 16: 193–203.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Christian, G. D., and Feldman, F. J., 1967, Clin. Chim. Acta 17: 87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nathan, D. G., and Rodkey, F. L., 1957, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 49: 779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCullough, H. A., 1967, Clin. Chim. Acta 17: 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stone, W. E., 1956, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 93: 589–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mondzac, A., Ehrlich, G. F., and Seegmiller, J. E., 1965, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 66: 526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vaidyanath, N., Birkhahu, R., Border, J. R., McMenamy, R., Oswald, G., Trietley, G., and Yuan, T. F., 1976, Anal. Biochem. 70: 479–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Friedl, F. E., 1972, Anal. Biochem. 48: 300–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Proelss, H. F., and Wright, B. W., 1973, Clin. Chem. 19: 1162–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moore, E. W., Strohmeyer, G. M., and Chalmers, T. C., 1963, Am. J. Med. 35: 350–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Richter, D., and Dawson, R. M. C., 1948, J. Biol. Chem. 176: 1199–1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hindfelt, B., 1975, J. Neurol. Sci. 25: 499–506.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ehrlich, M., Plum, F., and Duffy, T. E., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 1538–1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hawkins, R. A., Miller, A. L., Nielsen, R. C., and Veech, R. L., 1973, Biochem. J. 134: 1001–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Roberge, A., and Charbonneau, R., 1968, Rev. Can. Biol. 27: 321–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Warren, K. S., and Schenker, S., 1964, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 62: 442–449.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Godin, Y., Mark, J., Kayser, C., and Mandel, P., 1967, J. Neurochem. 14: 142–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thorn, W., and Heimann, J., 1958, J. Neurochem. 2: 166–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tews, J. K., and Stone, W. E., 1965, Prog. Brain Res. 16: 135–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Benzi, G., Arrigoni, E., Strada, P., Pastoris, O., Villa, R. F., and Agnoli, A., 1977, Biochem. Pharmacol. 26: 2397–2404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Benjamin, A. M., and Quastel, J. H., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25: 197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krebs, H. A., Eggleston, L. V., and Hems, R., 1949, Biochem. J. 44: 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weil-Malherbe, H., and Green, R. H., 1955, Biochem. J. 61: 210–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holmin, T., and Seisjo, B. K., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oja, S. S., von Bonsdorff, A. R., and Lindroos, O. F. C., 1966, Nature 212: 937–938.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hindfelt, B., 1975, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 48: 33–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bromberg, R. A., Robin, E. D., and Forkner, C. E., 1960, J. Clin. Invest. 39: 332–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Caesar, J., 1962, Clin. Sci. 22: 33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tsukada, Y., Takagaki, G., Sugimoto, S., and Hirano, S., 1958, J. Neurochem. 2: 295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hathway, D. E., Mallinson, A., and Akintonwa, D. A. A., 1965, Biochem. J. 94: 676–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chapman, A. G., Meldrum, B. S., and Seisjö, B. K., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28: 1025–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hathway, D. E., and Mallinson, A., 1964, Biochem. J. 90: 51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Whistler, K. E., Tews, J. K., and Stone, W. E., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 215–220.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Omer, V. St., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 365–374.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martin, M. A., Kar, P. P., and Anand, M., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 979–981.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cheema, P. S., Padmanaban, G., and Sarma, P. S., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 2137–2144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Torda, C., 1953, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 107: 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Greenstein, J. P., Winitz, M., Gullino, P., Birnbaum, S. M., and Otey, M. C., 1956, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 64: 342–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Faiman, M. D., Nolan, R. J., Baxter, C. F., and Dodd, D. E., 1977, J. Neurochem. 18: 2137–2144.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Folbergrova, J., Macmillan, V., and Seisjö, B. K., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 2507–2517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Agardh, C -D., Folbergrova, J., and Seisjö, B. K., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31: 1135–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Leornard, B. E., 1965, Biochem. Pharmacol. 14: 1293–1298.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Haulica, I., Ababei, L., Teodorescu, C., Rosca, V., Moisiu, M., and Haller, C., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 823–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    King, L. J., Carl, J. L., and Lao, L., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 307–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Williams, A. H., Kyu, M. H., Fenton, J. C. B., and Cavanagh, J. B., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 1073–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huttenloker, P. R., Schwartz, A. D., and Klatski, G., 1969, Pediatrics 43: 443–453.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weil-Malherbe, H., and Gordon, J., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 1659–1672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Weil-Malherbe, H., and Gordon, J. W., 1973, Neuropharmacology, 12: 367–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Benjamin, A. M., and Quastel, J. H., 1972, Biochem. J. 128: 631–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Benjamin, A. M., 1981, Brain Res. 208: 363–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Benjamin, A. M., and Quastel, J. H., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23: 457–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Benjamin, A. M., and Verjee, Z. H., 1980, Neurochem. Res. 5: 921–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wherrett, J. R., and Tower, D. B., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 1027–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Martinsen, E. E., and Tyakhepyl’d, L. Y., 1961, Biokhimiya 26: 984–992.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kometiani, P. A., Klein, Y. E., Gvalia, N. V., and Gotsiridze, Y. G., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 1331–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Takagaki, G., Hirano, S., and Tsukada, Y., 1957, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 68: 196–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Benjamin, A. M., and Quastel, J. H., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26: 433–443.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bradford, H. F., and Ward, H. K., 1976, Brain Res. 110: 115–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Salganicoff, L., and De Robertis, E., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12: 287–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Weiler, C. T., Nystrom, B., and Hamberger, A., 1979, Brain Res. 160: 539–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Buniatian, H. C., 1970, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 3 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 399–413.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schultz, V., and Lowenstein, J. M., 1978, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 1938–1943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Weil-Malherbe, H., and Green, R. H., 1955, Biochem. J. 61: 218–224.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nelson, S. R., and Mantz, M. L., 1971, Life Sci. 10: 901–907.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Benitez, D., Pscheidt, G. R., and Stone, W. E., 1954, Am. J. Physiol. 176: 483–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Geiger, A., Yamasaki, S., and Lyons, R., 1956, Am. J. Physiol. 184: 239–243.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vrba, R., and Folbergrova, J., 1959, J. Neurochem. 4: 338–349.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sadasivudu, B., and Indira Rao, T., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23: 267–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sadasivudu, B., and Indira Rao, T., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27. 785–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Berl, S., and Clarke, D. D., 1969, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 2 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 447–472.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nicklas, W., Nunez, R., Berl, S., and Duvoisin, R., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 839–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Balazs, R., Patel, A. J., and Richter, D., 1973, Metabolic Compartmentation in the Brain (R. Balazs and J. E. Cremer, eds.), Macmillan, London, pp. 167–184.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Van den Berg, C., 1970, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 3 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 355–379.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zamora, A. J., Cavanagh, J. B., and Kyu, M. H., 1973, J. Neurol. Sci. 18: 25–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Vergara, F., Plum, F., and Duffy, T. E., 1974, Science 183: 81–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Norenberg, M. D., and Lapham, L. W., 1974, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 33: 422–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Martinez-Hernandez, A., and Norenberg, M. D., 1977, Science 195: 1356–1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schousboe, A., Svenneby, G., and Hertz, L., 1977, J. Neurochem. 20: 999–1005.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bradford, H. F., and Thomas, A. J., 1969, J. Neurochem. 16: 1495–1504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sellinger, O. Z., and De Balbain Vester, F., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2836–2844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ward, H. K., and Bradford, H. F., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 339–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dennis, S. C., Lai, J. C. K., and Clark, J. B., 1980, Brain Res. 197: 469–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Norenberg, M. D., and Martinez-Hernandez, A., 1979, Brain Res. 161: 303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pamiljans, V., Krishnaswamy, P. R., Dumville, G., and Meister, A., 1962, Biochemistry 1: 153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pishak, M. R., and Phillips, A. T., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 866–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jacobs, M. H., and Parpart, A. K., 1938, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 11: 175–192.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Milne, M. D., Scribner, B. H., and Crawford, M. A., 1958, Am. J. Med. 24: 709–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Warren, K. S., and Nathan, D. G., 1958, J. Clin. Invest. 37: 1724–1728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Stabenau, J. R., Warren, K. S., and Rall, D. P., 1959, J. Clin. Invest. 38: 373–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Warren, K. S., 1962, Nature 195: 47–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Benjamin, A. M., Okamoto, K., and Quastel, J. H., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 131–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hindfelt, B., and Seisjö, B. K., 1971, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 28: 365–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rosado, A., Flores, G., Mora, J., and Soberon, G., 1962, Am. J. Physiol. 203: 37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Barker, A. V., 1968, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 168: 447–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sainsbury, G. M., 1980, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 631: 305–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Robin, E. D., Travis, D. M., Bromberg, P. A., Forkner, C. E., Jr., and Tyler, J. M., 1959, Science 129: 270–27I.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Skou, J. C., 1960, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 42: 6–23.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bourke, R. S., and Tower, D. B., 1966, J. Neurochem. 13: 1099–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Sadasivudu, B., Indira Rao, T., and Murthy, C. R., 1977, Neurochem. Res. 2: 639–655.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Beaugé, L. A., and Oritz, O., 1970, J. Exp. Zool. 174: 309–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Post, R. L., and Jolly, P. C., 1957, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 25: 118–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Albano, 0., and Francavilla, A., 1971, Gastroenterology 61: 893–897.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Binstock, L., and Lecar, H., 1969, J. Gen. Physiol. 53: 342–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hagiwara, S., Eaton, D. C., Stuart, A. E., and Rosenthal, W. P., 1972, J. Membr. Biol. 9: 373–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hille, B., 1973, J. Gen. Physiol. 61: 669–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tasaki, I., Singer, I., and Watanabe, A., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 763–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ishida, Y., 1967, Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 17: 6–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lux, H. D., 1971, Science 173: 555–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Llirías, R., Baker, R., and Precht, W., 1974, J. Neurophysiol. 37: 522–533.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Warren, K. S., 1958, J. Clin. Invest. 37: 497–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wilson, R. P., Muhrer, M. E., and Bloomfield, R. A., 1968, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 25: 295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wilson, R. P., Davies, L. E., Muhrer, M. E., and Bloomfield, R. A., 1968. Am. J. Vet. Res. 29: 897–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wilson, R. P., Andersen, R. O., and Bloomfield, R. A., 1969, Comp. Biochem. Prysiol. 28: 107–118.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Schenker, S., and Warren, K. S., 1962, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 60: 291–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zuiedema, G. D., Gainsford, W. D., Kowalczyk, R. S., and Wolfman, E. F., Jr., 1963, Arch. Surg. 87: 578–582.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sapirstein, M. R., 1943, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 52: 334–335.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Salvatore, F., and Bocchini, V., 1961, Nature 191: 705–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Niculescu, V., Bonciocoate, C., and Stancu, C., 1965, Biochem. Pharmacol. 14: 1635–1643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lamar, C., Jr., 1970, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 17: 795–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McKhann, G. M., and Tower, D. B., 1961, Am. J. Physiol. 200: 420–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hindfelt, B., Plum, F., and Duffy, T. E., 1977, J. Clin. Invest. 59: 386–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bessman, S. P., and Bessman, A. N., 1958, J. Clin. Invest. 34: 622–628.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Clark, G. M., and Eiseman, B., 1958, N. Engl. J. Med. 159: 178–180.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shorey, J., McCandless, D. W., and Schenker, S., 1967, Gastroenterology 54: 706–711.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Waelsch, H., Berl, S., Rossi, C. A., Clarke, D. D., and Purpura, D. P., 1964, J. Neurochem. 11: 711–728.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Verjee, Z. H., and Benjamin, A. M., 1979, XIth International Congress of Biochemistry, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa pp. 553.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Walker, C. O., and Schenker, S., 1970, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 619–632.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Norenberg, M. D., 1976, Arch. Neurol. 33: 265–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gerschenfeld, H. M., Wald, F., Zadunaisky, J. A., and De Roberts, E., 1959, Neurology (Minneap.), 9: 412–425.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cornog, J. L., Jr., Gonatas, N. K., Feierman, J. R., 1967, Am. J. Pathol. 51: 573–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bakay, L., 1968, Prog. Brain Res. 29: 315–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Maxwell, O. S., and Kruger, L., 1965, J. Cell Biol. 25: 141–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ware, A. J., D’Agostino, A. N., and Combes, B., 1971, Gastroenterology 61: 877–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ulshafer, T. R., 1958, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 52: 718–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Braganca, B. M., Faulkner, P., and Quastel, J. H., 1953, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 10: 83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Walker, C. O., Speeg, K. V.. Levinson, J. D., and Schenker, S., 1971, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 136: 668–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Cremer, J. E., Heath, J. F., Teal, H. M., Woods, M. S., and Cavanagh, J. B., 1975, Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 3: 291–311.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hamberger, A., Hedquist, B., and Nystrom, B., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 1295–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Benjamin
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Neurological SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations