Applied General Systems Research pp 91-104 | Cite as

# General System Identification — Fundamentals and Results

Chapter

## Abstract

The term identification was introduced by Zadeh in a 1956 paper [1] as a generic expression for the problem of “determining the input-output relationships of a black box by experimental means.” He cited the various terminologies then prevalent for the same problem: “characterization,” “measurement,” “evaluation,” “gedanken experiments,” etc., and noted that the term “identification” states “the crux of the problem with greater clarity than the more standard terms above.”

## Keywords

Inductive Inference Epistemological Problem Gedanken Experiment Grammatical Inference Matical Inference
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- 1.L. A. Zadeh, “On the Identification Problem,” IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory, 3, December 1956, pp. 277–281.Google Scholar
- 2.P. Eykhoff, System Identification, J. Wiley, London, 1974.Google Scholar
- 3.B. R. Gaines, “Linear and NonLinear Models of the Human Controller,” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 1, pp. 333–360, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.M. Dawkins, and R. Dawkins, “Some Descriptive and Explanatory Stochastic Models of Decision-Making,” Motivational Control Systems Analysis, Academic Press, pp. 119–168, 1974.Google Scholar
- 5.R. Dawkins, “Hierarchical Organization: A Candidate Principle for Ethology,” in P. P. G. Bateson and R. A. Hinde (ed), Growing Points in Ethology, Cambridge University Press, pp. 7–54, 1976.Google Scholar
- 6.D. M. Vowles, “Neuroethology, Evolution and Grammar,” in L. R. Aronson et al. (eds), Development and Evolution of Behaviour, W. H. Freeman, pp. 194–215, 1970.Google Scholar
- 7.K. S. Fu, and T. L. Booth, “Grammatical Inference: Introduction and Survey,” IEEE Trans, Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-5, 1975, pp. 95–111 (Part I), 409–423 (Part II).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.K. S. Fu, Syntactic Methods in Pattern Recognition, Academic Press, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
- 9.B. R. Gaines, “System Identification, Approximation and Complexity,” International Journal of General Systems, 3, pp. 145–174, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.B. R. Gaines, “Behaviour/Structure Transformations Under Uncertainty,” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 8, pp. 337–365, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.B. R. Gaines, “Progress in General Systems Research,” Proceedings of First International Conference on Applied General Systems Research: Recent Developments and Trends, Binghamton, N.Y., August 1977.Google Scholar
- 12.S. Watanabe, “Information-Theoretical Aspects of Inductive and Deductive Inference,” IBM Journal Research and Development, 4, pp. 208–231, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.S. Watanabe, “Symmetry in Physical Laws, Part III, Prediction and Retrodiction,” Reviews of Modern Physics, 27, pp. 179–186, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.R. Solomonoff, “A Formal Theory of Inductive Inference,” Information and Control, 7, pp. 1–22 (Part 1), 224–254 (Part 2), 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.R. Solomonoff, “A New Method for Discovering the Grammars for Phrase Structure Languages,” Proc. Int. Conf. Information Processing, UNESCO, Paris, Butterworths, June 1959, pp. 285–290.Google Scholar
- 16.N. Chomsky, and G. A. Miller, Pattern Conception, Report AFCRC-TN-57–57, August 1957.Google Scholar
- 17.E. M. Gold, “Language Identification in the Limit,” Information and Control, 10, pp. 447–474, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.J. A. Feldman, “First Thoughts on Grammatical Inference,” A. I. Memo 55, Stanford University, 1967.Google Scholar
- 19.J. Feldman, “Some Decidability Results on Grammatical Inference and Complexity,” Information and Control, 20, pp. 244–262, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.A. Biermann, and J. Feldman, “A Survey of Results in Grammatical Inference,” in S. Watanabe (ed), Frontiers of Pattern Recognition, Academic Press, New York, pp. 31–53, 1972.Google Scholar
- 21.J. J. Horning, A Study of Grammatical Inference, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1969 (University Microfilms 70–10, 465).Google Scholar
- 22.A. W. Biermann, and R. Krishnaswamy, “Constructing Programs from Example Computations,” IEEE Trans. Software Engineering, SE-2, pp. 141–153, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.A. R. Patel, Grammatical Inference for Probabilistic Finite State Grammars, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Connecticut, 1972 (University Microfilms 72–32 241).Google Scholar
- 24.F. J. Maryanski, Inference of Probabilistic Grammars, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Connecticut, 1974 (University Microfilms 75–10 645).Google Scholar
- 25.J. A. Goguen, “Realization is Universal,” Mathematical Systems Theory, 6, pp. 359–374, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.M. A. Arbib, and E. G. Manes, “Foundations of Systems Theory: Decomposable Systems,” Automatica, 10, pp. 285–302, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.H. Ehrig, Universal Theory of Automata, B. G. Teubner, Stuttgart, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.M. A. Arbib, “Automata and Control Theory—A Rapprochement,” Automatica, 3, pp. 161–189, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.T. L. Fine, Theories of Probability, Academic Press, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
- 30.B. R. Gaines, “On the Complexity of Causal Models,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-6, pp. 56–59, 1976.Google Scholar
- 31.A. Kolmogorov, “Logical Basis for Information Theory and Probability Theory,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, IT-14, pp. 662–664, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.D. A. Ralescu, “Abstract Models for System Identification,” Faculte de Science Economique et de Gestion, Institut de Mathematiques Economiques, Dijon, France.Google Scholar
- 33.L. J. Savage, “Elicitation of Personal Probabilities and Their Assessment,” Journal American Statistical Association, 66, pp. 783–801.Google Scholar
- 34.B. de Finetti, Probability, Induction and Statistics, John Wiley, London, 1972.Google Scholar
- 35.J. Pearl, “An Economic Basis for Certain Methods of Evaluating Probabilistic Forecasts,” UCLA-ENG-7561, School of Engineering and Applied Science, UCLA, California, July 1975.Google Scholar
- 36.R. M. Wharton, “Approximate Language Identification,” Information and Control, 26, pp. 236–255, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.E. Sober, Simplicity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.J. V. Cornacchio, “System Complexity—A Bibliography,” International Journal of General Systems, 3, pp. 267–271, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.A. Van der Mude, and A. Walker, “On the Inference of Stochastic Regular Grammars,” Information and Control, to appear.Google Scholar
- 40.B. P. Zeigler, “Simulation Based Structural Complexity,” International Journal of General Systems, 2, pp. 217–223, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 41.R. M. Wharton, “Grammar Enumeration and Inference,” Information and Control, 33, pp. 253–272, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.G. J. Klir, “Identification of Generative Structures in Empirical Data,” International Journal of General Systems, 3, pp. 89–104, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.G. J. Klir, and H. J. J. Uyttenhove, “Computerized Methodology for Structure Modelling,” Annals of Systems Research, 5, pp. 29–66, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.G. J. Klir, and H. J. J. Uyttenhove, “On the Role of Computer-Aided Structure Identification: Some Experimental Observations and Guidelines,” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9, 1977, to appear.Google Scholar
- 45.L. Blum, and M. Blum, “Toward a Mathematical Theory of Inductive Inference,” Information and Control, 28, pp. 125–155, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.S. Crespi-Reghizzi, M. A. Melankoff, and L. Lichten, “The use of Grammatical Inference for Designing Programming Languages,” Communications of Association for Computing Machinery, 16, pp. 83–90, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 47.A. Walker, “A Framework for Model Construction and Model-Based Deduction in Systems with Causal Loops,” Proceedings 3rd, Illinois Conf. on Med. Inf. Processing, Department of Information Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, 1976.Google Scholar
- 48.I. H. Witten, “Non-Deterministic Modelling of Behaviour Sequences,” EES-MMS-MOD-77, April 1977, Department of Electrical Engineering Science, University of Essex.Google Scholar
- 49.J. H. Andreae, and J. G. Cleary, “A New Mechanism for the Brain,” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 8, pp. 89–119, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 50.P. Hajek, and T. Havranek, “On Generation of Inductive Hypotheses,” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9, 1977, to appear.Google Scholar
- 51.Special issue on the GUHA method and its applications, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 10, January 1978.Google Scholar
- 52.R. Chilausky, B. Jacobson, and R. S. Michalski, “An Application of Variable-Valued Logic to Inductive Learning of Plant Disease Diagnostic Rules,” Proc. Sixth Int. Symp. on Multiple Valued Logic, IEEE 76 CH 1111–4C, Utah, May 1976, pp. 233–240.Google Scholar

## Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978