Systems-Methodology in Management: An Adaptive Procedure for Organic Problem-Solving

  • Peter Gomez
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 5)


Management is identical with problem-solving in sociotechnical systems which are characterized by their inherent complexity, uncertainty and self-regulation. In order to cope with these features in the context of individual firms, industrial complexes or even whole human societies, methodologies are needed to guide the manager, economist or politician in his efforts to control the system for which he is responsible. Control in this context can only mean organic control, using the inner dynamics of the system to perform those problem-solving interventions which generate a desired systems behavior. A methodology based on such a concept of organic control results when the framework and the tools of systems theory and cybernetics are combined with evolutionary procedures of tackling real-world problems to form an overall problem resolution strategy.


Reference Frame Problem Resolution Process Problem Resolution Strategy Methodological Tool Methodological Criterion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. Beer, 1968, Management Science, Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Beer, 1975, Designing Freedom, John Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. T. Campbell, 1974, “Evolutionary Epistemology.” In: The Philosophy of Karl Popper, edited by P. Schilpp, Open Court, LaSalle, Illinois.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Cavallo and G. J. Klir, 1977, “A conceptual foundation for systems problem solving.” International Journal of Systems Science (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Cavallo and M. Conklin, 1977, “Systems methodology in sociology.” International Journal of Systems Science, 8 (1977), 1, pp. 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Checkland, 1972, “Towards a systems-based methodology for real-world problem-solving.” In: Journal of Systems Engineering, 3 (1972) 2, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Drucker, 1967, The Effective Executive, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Gomez, 1976, “The systems-methodology for organic problem-solving.” Proceedings of the 3rd European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Gomez, 1977, “Organic problem-solving in management: systems-methodology applied to the design of viable systems.” In: Proceedings of the 21st meeting of the Society for General Systems Research, edited by J. Whyte, Society for General Systems Research, Washington.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Gomez, F. Malik and K. H. Oeller, 1975, Systemmethodik, Paul Haupt, Berne.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. J. Klir, 1969, An Approach to General Systems Theory, Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. J. Klir, 1977, “General systems concepts.” In: Cybernetics: A Sourcebook, edited by R. Trappl, Hemisphere, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ch. Lindblom, 1959, “The science of muddling through.” Public Administration Review, 19 (1959), pp. 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Pask, 1963, “A model for concept learning.” In: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Electronics, Rome, pp. 73–105.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Popper, 1972, Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Quade and W. Boucher, 1968, Systems Analysis and Policy Planning—Applications in Defense, American Elsevier Pub. Co., New York.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. D. Steinbruner, 1974, The Cybernetic Theory of Decision, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Weinberg, 1975, An Introduction to General Systems Thinking, John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Gomez
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Gall Graduate School for Economics and BusinessSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations