Prelaunch Slush Hydrogen Loading Factors Affecting Instrumentation and Control

  • R. M. Kocher
  • C. W. Keller
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 14)

Abstract

Analysis of theoretical and practical work in the literature indicates that slush hydrogen can be manufactured and transferred through facility piping to a point near a launch vehicle. The rate of flow of the solids, i.e., the product of the volumetric rate of flow, the slush density, and the slush solid fraction at that point, also can probably be determined with reasonable accuracy. However, the percentage solid on board the vehicle at the moment of launch (the process end-point) is difficult to control up to the moment of launch [1–5]. Various on-stage devices such as nuclear radiation detector arrays arranged in removable blankets, interstage weighing systems, and in-tank capacitance matrices have been proposed for loaded mass determination, together with point liquid level sensors for volume determination [1,2,6]. These devices do not appear to solve completely the specific slush loading problem which can be simply stated as follows: Load a mass of slush hydrogen into the upper stage of a vehicle on a launch pad, under controlled conditions, so that a prespecified mass of slush hydrogen occupies the upper stage tank immediately prior to liftoff.

Keywords

Cryogenic Engineer Constant Volume Process Incremental Error Probable Total Error Recirculation Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    N. E. Stanley, “Generation and Loading of Triple Point Hydrogen for High Performance Aircraft, Boosters and Spacecraft,” presented at AIAA 3rd Propulsion Joint Specialist Conf., Washington, D.C. (July 1967).Google Scholar
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    W. J. Alspach, T. M. Flynn, and R. J. Richards, NBS Tech. Kept. 8879 (Mar. 1, 1966).Google Scholar
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    C. W. Keller, “A Study of Hydrogen Slush and/or Hydrogen Gel Utilization,” Final Rept. Vol. 2, Contract NAS 8–20342, Lockheed Missies and Space Co. (Man 11, 1967).Google Scholar
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    D. B. Mann, C. F. Sindt, P. R. Ludtke, and D. B. Chelton, in: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 11, Plenum Press, New York (1966), p. 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    “Slush Hydrogen Fluid Characterization and Instrumentation Analysis,” Cryogenics Division, NBS Institute for Materials Research, Boulder, Colo., work performed on NASA MSFC projects 3150452 and 3150456. 1967 Progress Review.Google Scholar
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    R. M. Vernon, “Final Report, A Study of Cryogenic: Container Thermodynamics During Propellant Transfer,” Vol, 1, Summary, Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Contract NAS 8–20362, NASA-MSFC (Oct. 31, 1967).Google Scholar
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    R. M. Kocher and A. G. Brown, in: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 14, Plenum Press, New York (1969), p. 311.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Kocher
    • 1
  • C. W. Keller
    • 1
  1. 1.Lockheed Missiles and Space CompanySunnyvaleUSA

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