Interactive three-dimensional computer graphics in molecular biology

  • Robert Langridge
Part of the FASEB Monographs book series (FASEBM, volume 2)


Interactive three-dimensional computer graphics was first used in 1964 to study biological macromolecules, particularly nucleic acids (3) and proteins (1). A good general description of this early work is given in (4). The hardware was the then unique Project MAC Electronic Systems Laboratory display at MIT. It was some time before comparable equipment became available elsewhere.


Computer Graphic Residue Number Amino Acid Type Atom Contact Lower Left Hand Corner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    Barry, C. D., C. Levinthal, S. A. Ward and M. Zwick. Computer graphics in macromolecular chemistry. In: Emerging Concepts in Computer Graphics, edited by D. Secrest and J. Nievergelt. New York: Benjamin, 1968, p. 251–253.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bond, P. J. Computer graphics and macromolecular structures. Computer Graphics, ACM SIGRAPH 6: 13–26, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Langridge, R., and E. A. W. Mac Ewan. The refinement of nucleic acid structures. Proc. IBM Symp. Scientific Computing on Computer-Aided Experimentation 1965, 133–143.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levinthal, C. Molecular model building by computer. Sci. Amer. 214: 42–52, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Newman, W., and R. Sprocell. Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Langridge
    • 1
  1. 1.Princeton UniversityPrincetonUSA

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