Development of High-Efficiency Insulation
Superinsulation, maximum-efficiency insulation, super-dewars, multiple-layer insulation, all of these terms denote the developments of insulating systems where the heat transfer mechanism of gas conduction solid-to-solid conduction, and radiation have been reduced to a minimum. Although these insulations have been developed only recently, the methods used to reduce heat flow are not fundamentally new. Dewar demonstrated in 1898 that an evacuated space between two vessels, suitably silvered, forms an. effective barrier by radiation-shielding the evacuated space. Smoluchowski, in his contribution to the kinetic theory of gases, showed in 1910 that thermal insulators more effective than air could be made from fine powders in a moderate vacuum. It is on the basis of the work of these scientists that further developments in insulation for cryogenic vessels have proceeded.
KeywordsHeat Transfer Radiant Heat Transfer Carbon Powder Heat Transfer Mechanism Radiation Shield
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