A New Refrigeration System for 4.2°K

  • W. E. Gifford
  • T. E. Hoffman
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 6)


A year ago, a new refrigeration cycle was described [1,2]. Its basic simplicity showed promise of excellent reliability and ease of construction. It was able to reach 35°K and to generate refrigeration efficiently at 80°K and above in its most elementary form. The purpose of this paper is to show how the basic method with modifications can be used as the base for a small, simple helium-temperature refrigerator and to describe such an operating refrigerator.


Heat Exchanger Heat Pump Refrigeration System Exhaust Valve Refrigeration Cycle 
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  1. 1.
    W. E. Gifford and H. O. McMahon, “A New Refrigeration Process,” Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Refrigeration, Copenhagen, Denmark (August, 1959).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. E. Gifford and H. O. McMahon, “A New Low-Temperature Gas-Expansion Cycle” (Parts I and II), Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 5, K.D. Timmerhaus (ed.), Plenum Press, Inc., New York (1960).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Gifford
    • 1
  • T. E. Hoffman
    • 1
  1. 1.Arthur D. Little, Inc.CambridgeUSA

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