Pressurized Transfer of Cryogenic Fluids from Tanks in Liquid-Nitrogen Baths

  • J. C. Humphrey
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 6)


Most of the preliminary rocket engine development, performance and experimental tests use pressurized propellant feed systems for reasons of economy and expediency. Because of the need for obtaining accurate flow records, many pressurized cryogenic systems are placed in liquid-nitrogen baths. If both the propellant tank and flow lines are covered by such a bath, more precise knowledge of the cryogenic fluid density is obtained and two-phase flow through orifices or flow meters is eliminated. Density of liquid oxygen can vary by 1% for a temperature change of 2.3°F, and the uncertainty due to two-phase flow through an orifice cannot now be estimated.


Liquid Flow Rate Condensation Rate Liquid Oxygen Large Tank Tank Pressure 
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  1. 1.
    W.H. McAdams, Heat Transmission, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1954).Google Scholar
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    R.W. Miliar and J.D. Sullivan, Thermodynamic Properties of Oxygen and Nitrogen, U.S. Bureau of Mines Tech. Paper 424 (1928).Google Scholar
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    D.C. Bowersock, R. W. Gardner and R.C. Reid, “Pressurized Transfer of Cryogenic Liquids,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 4, K.D. Timmerhaus (ed.), Plenum Press, Inc., New York (1960).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Humphrey
    • 1
  1. 1.Lewis Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationClevelandUSA

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