Wear and Friction of Impregnated Carbon Seal Materials in Liquid Nitrogen and Hydrogen

  • D. W. Wisander
  • R. L. Johnson
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 6)


The most effective dynamic seals for cryogenic fluids require slider materials for solid contact. The seal material should provide inherently low friction and low wear since cryogenic liquids are not capable of effective boundary lubrication [1]. Mechanical carbons (those made for applications involving mechanical stress) are most commonly used as nose pieces for seals. The carbon compositions are usually considered capable of self-lubrication, in liquid nitrogen and in liquid hydrogen, however, the wear of carbons is rapid [1,2] and may result in a service life of less than 1% of that expected with water or lubricants. In gaseous nitrogen or dry air, the problem may be more critical than in a cryogenic liquid since the liquid is an effective sink for the removal of frictional heat [3].


Friction Coefficient Graphitic Carbon Liquid Hydrogen Metal Fluoride Seal Material 
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  1. 1.
    D. W. Wisander, W. F. Hady, and R. L. Johnson, Friction Studies of Various Materials in Liquid Nitrogen, NACA TN 4211 (1958).Google Scholar
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  4. 4.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Wisander
    • 1
  • R. L. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Lewis Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationClevelandUSA

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