Static and Dynamic Behavior of Helium-Gas Thermometers Below 77° K

  • D. C. Holten
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 9)


Temperature measurements below 100°K are generally accomplished using one of four basic sensing elements—thermocouples, resistance thermometers, semiconductors, and gas thermometers. The first three devices depend on the conversion of an output voltage to the desired temperature information. They are, therefore, basically electrical in nature, The latter, depending only on the unique temperature-pressure relationship of a pure gas, is inherently thermodynamic in character.


Heat Transfer Effect Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Friction Pressure Drop Vapor Pressure Equilibrium Vary Volume Ratio 
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  1. 1.
    D. B. Mann, “The Thermodynamic Properties of Helium from 3 to 300°K Between 0.5 and 100 atm,” NBS Tech. Note No. 154 (Jan. 1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Michels and H. Wouters, “Isotherms of Helium Between 0 and 150°C up to 200 Amagat,” Physica, 8, No. 8 (Sept. 1941); data as reduced by Chemical Engineering Division, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. C. W. Olson and O. T. Schultz, Ind. Eng. Chem. 34, No. 7, 874 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Holten
    • 1
  1. 1.Lawrence Radiation LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaLivermoreUSA

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