A Preliminary Study of the Orifice Flow Characteristics of Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Hydrogen Discharging into a Vacuum

  • J. A. Brennan
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 9)


Successful space exploration depends upon, among other things, the ability to store propellants on board the vehicle for long periods of time. There are many problems and uncertainties associated with the storage and handling of propellants in environments at pressures below their triple points. One such problem is propellant loss caused by meteoroid puncture. According to Jazwinski [1] propellant-loss prediction can be divided into four distinct areas, namely, (1) properties of the meteoroid environment which the vehicle traverses, (2) the penetration process by which holes are produced in the vehicle, (3) flow relations for the escaping fuel, and (4) probabilistic evaluation of the fuel losses. The present work is concerned with the problem of flow relations for the escaping propellant.


Vapor Bubble Solid Formation Discharge Coefficient Orifice Diameter Liquid Hydrogen 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Brennan
    • 1
  1. 1.CEL National Bureau of StandardsBoulderUSA

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