Combination Chemotherapy for Advanced Disease

  • Paul P. Carbone
  • Douglass C. Tormey


The chemical nonhormonal treatment of breast cancer has developed rapidly in the last three decades. In the first two decades, several reports indicated that responses could be achieved in patients with nitrogen mustard,(1) triethylenethiophosphoramide (thio-TEPA),(2) methotrexate,(3) cyclophosphamide,(4,5) and 5-fluorouracil.(6) With the demonstration in experimental animal tumors and clinically in patients with Hodgkin’s disease(7) and acute lymphocytic leukemia(8) that combinations of drugs were more effective than single agents, interest in the use of multiple-drug regimens also developed for patients with breast cancer. One of the earliest reports was by Greenspan et al. in 1963.(9) But it was not until 1969, when Cooper(10) reported that a five-drug program produced complete responses in 90% of patients with advanced breast cancer, that the trials with combination chemotherapy became more widespread. Since then, there has been a literal explosion of combination chemotherapy programs(11) producing high response rates in the 50–60% range. In the past two years, chemotherapy has played a major role combined with surgery in the management of primary operable breast cancer.


Breast Cancer Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Combination Chemotherapy Advanced Breast Cancer Bone Marrow Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul P. Carbone
    • 1
  • Douglass C. Tormey
    • 1
  1. 1.National Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

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